10 Impressive Museums Of Contemporary Art

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10 Impressive Museums Of Contemporary Art
10 Impressive Museums Of Contemporary Art

Video: 10 Impressive Museums Of Contemporary Art

Video: TOP 10 Contemporary Art Museums. 2022, December
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Contemporary art museums - one of the main attractions of modern megalopolises. Large-scale buildings designed by famous world architects try to amaze tourists with their spectacular appearance, flying shapes and unusual exhibition grounds. As a result, museums themselves become large-scale installations and monuments of the development of modern society, and their content and convenience recede into the background: museums of contemporary art are much more interesting than contemporary art in itself. However, after the 2008 crisis, simple and functional buildings are replacing the annoying "attraction" museums, and Rem Koolhaas's new "Garage" is one of the clearest examples of new fashion. We examined 10 contemporary art museums built by renowned architects around the world.

Guggenheim Museum

New York, Frank Lloyd Wright, 1959

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The shell-like Solomon Guggenheim Museum in New York is one of the most famous projects of the patriarch of American architecture, Frank Lloyd Wright. When creating the exhibition space, Wright decided to abandon the series of halls and create a single route in the form of an inverted spiral. According to the architect's plan, visitors were to take an elevator to the top floor of the museum and gradually descend down the ramp, inspecting the exposition. However, Wright did not live to see the completion of the construction and his scheme was abandoned: to view the exposition, one must go upstairs. In fact, the New York Museum has become the forerunner of modern buildings, although by today's standards it looks modest.

Center Pompidou

Paris, Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano, 1977

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The Pompidou Center, turned inside out, is a collaboration between Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano (after the completion of the project, Rogers and Piano began to work separately, but both became high-tech classics). After opening in 1977, the museum was criticized for its overly radical appearance, which stands out sharply in traditional Parisian buildings. In fact, the architects created a "machine for exhibitions": all communications of the building were taken out, which allowed more space for exhibitions inside. What makes this museum different from an assembly shop or any other industrial building? A sense of constant novelty is critical to the look of the Pompidou Center: unlike classical architecture, modern buildings do not age well, and therefore have to be regularly maintained in good condition. Contemporary art should always have a new wrapper.

Guggenheim Museum Bilbao

Bilbao, Frank Gehry, 1997

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Frank Gehry's Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao is one of the most famous buildings of the 20th century, which launched the global fashion for deconstructivism and "attraction" buildings. If in the case of the Pompidou Center, the unusual appearance was not an end in itself for the architects, but only a consequence of a functional solution, then to design the curved forms of the museum in Bilbao, the architect used special software, which is usually used in the aircraft industry. And the result was a huge melted ship - very unusual, but not the most functional. The opening of the museum made Bilbao an attractive tourist destination and launched a process of active renewal of the city. However, this “Bilbao effect” - the creation of an architecturally spectacular cultural center - was tried to be repeated in other cities, but they were rather unsuccessful.

Tate Modern

London, Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron, 2000

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At the turn of the century, the Swiss duo of Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron turned the trick in reverse to that of Frank Gehry. The architects converted the former Bankside Power Station on the banks of the Thames into the Tate Modern.As a result of the reconstruction, the former workshops have turned into minimalist exhibition spaces. If in Bilbao the building was supposed to amaze with spectacular architecture, and the works of art themselves faded into the background, then in London the architecture remained emphatically neutral. A year later, the Swiss received the Pritzker Prize, and the large-scale Turbine Hall became a symbol of modern exhibition spaces. Perhaps in vain.

Denver Museum

Denver, Daniel Libeskind, 2006

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The Denver Art Museum's new titanium and glass building is one of Daniel Libeskind's most famous projects. The building continues the line of the Guggenheim Museum: it is, rather, not an exhibition space, but a public area, a new urban symbol and element of the environment. However, if the Berlin Jewish Museum became an architect's triumph - the broken forms of the building there conveyed the horror of the tragedy and the building itself was an installation, then the building in Denver is rather a failure. The spectacular form only made it difficult to display works of art, and just five years later, a new museum building appeared in the neighborhood - a neutral parallelepiped.

New Museum of Contemporary Art

New York, Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa, 2007

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The Museum of Modern Art in New York is a triumph of simplicity and neutrality. In southern Manhattan, the Japanese duo SANAA threw six concrete boxes on top of each other and got a memorable building, which, on the contrary, tries to be as inconspicuous as possible. Inside the new museum there are the same snow-white exhibition spaces. Due to the fact that the blocks of the building are located with displacements, the museum managed to create an unusual glazing that allows daylight into the exhibition halls. The new museum is a symbol of fatigue from architectural excesses: the global fashion for deconstructivism has been replaced by a passion for minimalism and simple forms. Three years after the museum opened, the duo of Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa received the Pritzker Prize for him.

MAXXI - National Museum of Art of the XXI Century

Rome, Zaha Hadid, 2010

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The National Museum of Art of the XXI century on the site of the former barracks on the northern outskirts of Rome - Zaha Hadid's opus magnum and another greetings from the turn of the century. In the late 1990s, it turned out that Rome is the only European capital that does not have a museum of modern art. In 1999, an architectural competition was held, in which Zaha Hadid won. The new Museum of Rome was supposed to become not so much an exhibition area as an object of art in itself: in the interior spaces of the museum, individual rooms are hardly guessed, rather, they look like the intestines of a huge animal. The building was completed only by the end of the decade, and immediately after that, the British received an honorary Sterling Prize. The MAXXI building is a clear consequence of Hadid's passion for Suprematism, but the Romans compared the building with pasta. Like her other buildings, this is a distinctive thing in itself, which may well do without art - and without people.

Center Pompidou-Metz

Metz, Shigeru Ban, 2010

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The Pompidou Center in Metz is an attempt to replicate the success of the Parisian museum in the provinces. Pritzker Prize winner Shigeru Ban covered a simple museum building with an unusual mushroom-shaped roof with a wooden hexagonal frame. To create it, the Japanese turned to another Pritzker laureate - the late Fry Otto, who became famous back in the 1960s for the creation of awning structures. The center in Metz is a very functional and human space that tries not to overwhelm the viewer, but rather to be friendly. Inside the building there are three galleries, a theater and classrooms. The compromise solution turned out to be successful: a year later, the museum became one of the main attractions of France outside Paris, it was visited by 500 thousand people.

Louis Vuitton Foundation

Paris, Frank Gehry, 2014

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The Louis Vuitton Foundation, which opened last fall in the Bois de Boulogne in Paris, is another Frank Gehry exercise in the genre.The richest man in France, Bernard Arnault, allocated $ 150 million to build a huge glass whale with references to Tatlin and traditional park architecture. In fact, this is the usual Gehry: for the sake of a spectacular visual image, dozens of innovative technical solutions were invented, but the convenience and efficiency of using the museum were questionable, and the architect left the occupation of the curved halls at the mercy of the curators. The construction took eight years, and by the time the building was completed, the time for such architecture was rather over. The architect was criticized - in response, Gehry showed his opponents the middle finger and added that most of modern architecture is "complete crap."

Garage

Moscow, Rem Koolhaas, 2015

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Rem Koolhaas' Garage building in Gorky Park is a world-class landmark. Koolhaas covered the typical Seasons restaurant with facades of daylight-transmitting polycarbonate, and carefully preserved all the remnants of Soviet interiors. The new Garage is an avant-garde yet practical space. The architect, on the one hand, breathed new life into an ordinary project of 1968 and cleared the usual Soviet materials from the ideological taint, and on the other hand, he created a calm and human-proportionate exhibition space. The new "Garage" is the exact opposite of the Tate Modern Turbine Hall: according to the Dutch architect, huge empty exhibition halls force artists to create ever larger works of art and not pay attention to details. Everyday, unusually cramped premises for modern museums should correct this situation.

Photos: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, cover image via Shutterstock, The-Village.ru

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