Marigolds or Tagetes: planting and care in the open field, photo

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Marigolds or Tagetes: planting and care in the open field, photo
Marigolds or Tagetes: planting and care in the open field, photo

Distinctive features of the marigold plant, advice on growing tagetes in the open field, reproduction, possible diseases and pests when caring for the site, note for flower growers, species. Marigolds (Tagetes) are often found in the literature under the name Tagetes, following the transliteration in Latin. The plant belongs to the family Asteraceae or Compositae, which is one of the largest associations of dicotyledonous representatives of the flora. It is believed that marigolds originate from the territory of America, where most of their species are found on lands stretching from New Mexico and Arizona, ending with Argentina. Only in the 16th century, thanks to the conquistadors, these plants were brought to Spain, from where their "conquest" of the countries of Europe and Asia Minor came, they became "welcome guests" of Russia and other states. There are up to 40 different species in the genus.

Family name Astral or Compositae
Life cycle Perennial or annual
Growth features Herbaceous
Reproduction Seed
Landing period in open ground Seedlings are planted when the threat of frost has passed
Disembarkation scheme Depends on the variety
Substrate Nutritious loamy
Illumination Open area with bright lighting, partial shade
Moisture indicators Watering is moderate, stagnant moisture will lead to decay
Special Requirements Unpretentious
Plant height 0.02–1.2 m
Color of flowers Yellow, cream, lemon, orange or brown
Type of flowers, inflorescences Single flowers or corymbose inflorescences
Flowering time June-October
Decorative time Summer-autumn
Place of application Curbs, flower beds and flower beds, as a pot culture and for cutting
USDA zone 4–9

The plant got its scientific name thanks to Karl Linnaeus, the famous taxonomy of the flora of the planet, who in 1753 decided to give the name Tages because of the way the seeds are sown (namely, in the grooves). This is how the ancient Etruscans called their deity, who was born from a furrow. But in some countries, you can hear how these flowers are called "blackbears" (Ukraine), "Marie's gold" (marigolds, England), "student flower" (Germany) or "Turkish chamomile".

Marigolds can have both perennial and one-year life cycles. On our lands, it is customary to grow them as an annual. The stems are usually erect and branched. With their help, a bush is formed with compact or spreading outlines. Plant height can vary from 20 cm to 1.2 m. The root system has a rod-like or fibrous form. On the stems, leaf plates are unfolded that have pinnately dissected or pinnately separate contours. Occasionally, the leaves are whole, but mostly they have rare teeth on the edge. The leaves are arranged in opposite order or grow alternately. The color of the foliage can vary from light to dark green, while the glands are well translucent on the surface.

It is flowering that makes marigolds especially attractive. Inflorescences are baskets that have a simple or double shape. Flower petals of bright yellow, orange or brown colors. The size of the flower heads is average, there is a blanket of cylindrical outlines, which is formed by means of a single row of leaflets, differing in interconnection. The marginal flowers are female, they take on ligulate contours. Flowers have a somewhat astral aroma, but there are people who find it unpleasant. The flowering process begins from the first summer month and stretches until frost.

Marigolds bear fruit with achenes of black or blackish-brown color. The achenes have linear outlines, which become narrowed towards the base, that is, the contour with strong flattening. Seed germination can persist for 3-4 years. The size of the seeds is small, their number in one gram varies in the range of 280-700 units.

If the variety is undersized, then it is used for growing as a pot culture, and you can also plant flowers on windows and balconies, plants with tall stems are suitable for cutting.

Growing marigold flowers - planting and care in the open field

Watering marigolds
Watering marigolds
  1. Choosing a landing site. These plants are generally unpretentious and, although they prefer open sunny places, they can easily endure partial shade, but they will bloom abundantly only under the sun's rays.
  2. Priming for marigolds, a fertile, loamy one is selected so that it has sufficient moisture, both in the first half of summer and when dry hot weather sets in in July-August. Acidity needs a neutral pH of 6, 5–7.
  3. Planting marigolds. Planting seedlings in open ground is performed when there are definitely no late frosts, since the plants die even at -1 frost. On seedlings suitable for planting, there should already be three leaf plates and developed root processes. Marigolds are usually planted in late spring or early summer. If the substrate on the site does not differ in fertility, then during the growing season of plants it is recommended to carry out top dressing. When planting marigold seedlings on a flower bed, it is important to take into account the type and variety of plants. Tall species are placed according to a scheme of 40x40 cm from each other, with an average height of stems at a distance of 30 cm between seedlings and between rows, they leave up to 30 cm, with low-growing forms, the scheme will be 20x20 cm. After the bushes have been planted, while they will not be accepted, they are often and abundantly watered, since a lack of moisture at this stage will lead to the fact that the stems become puny, and the inflorescences are crushed.
  4. Watering. While the tagetes is increasing its deciduous mass and growing, then it must be watered abundantly, but as soon as the formation of inflorescences is noticed, then the moisture is reduced, since an excess of moisture will lead to decay. However, if the weather is too dry, then the bushes need good watering and spraying.
  5. Fertilizers they are practically not used for marigolds, but if you want to support the plants, then they add complex mineral preparations such as Kemira-Universal. This is carried out when the stems of the summer plant have reached a height of 10 cm, and the first buds are being formed, then you can add Kemira-Plus, and repeat the feeding at the beginning of the flowering process.
  6. General advice on care. The Letnik will perfectly tolerate the transplant without destroying the root ball of the soil at any summer time, so bushes can be easily replaced with those that accidentally died. However, marigolds cannot withstand frosts, their seedlings die at 1 degree of frost, and adult bushes at -2. It is important during the entire growing season to loosen the soil next to the bushes and weed the weeds. In the summer, pruning is carried out to form beautiful bushes. When the inflorescences wither, it is better to remove them, then the flowering will become even stronger.

Reproduction of marigolds

Planting marigolds
Planting marigolds

Usually, annual plants are propagated by sowing seeds. Collected or purchased planting material is sown directly into open ground at the end of spring, when the ground is already warm enough. A groove is prepared with a depth of about 5 cm, then the substrate is moistened in it and the seeds are placed there, sprinkling with soil on top. But usually seedlings are grown for this.

For this process, the seeds are first prepared. If there are home flowers, then the inflorescences are allowed to dry well on the stems and when there is no rain, then the seeds can be easily removed from the hemicarps and saved until spring planting. But in this case, it is important to remember that the traits of the mother plant can be lost. Seeds can be spread out on a flat plate before planting and covered with damp gauze. After that, the container is wrapped in a plastic bag and placed in a warm place so that the seeds germinate. After three days, you can see that they hatch.

It is important to remember that the earlier the planting material for seedlings is sown, the sooner flowering will occur. If erect marigolds are grown, then they are sown in mid-March, other species can be sown in mid-spring, but all the seedlings obtained will bloom with the arrival of summer. For seedlings, a soil mixture is prepared from river sand, peat, humus and turf in a ratio of 0.5: 1: 1: 1. The substrate is watered with a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate or any fungicidal agent, then the soil is mixed with fertilizers and placed in a container, at the bottom of which a drainage layer of 3 cm is poured (crushed stone, expanded clay or pebbles). Any organic product can act as a fertilizer, but not fresh manure.

Grooves are made in the soil, keeping between them 1, 5–2 cm. Seeds are laid out in them and sprinkled with the same substrate a little. The container is transferred to a room with a temperature of 22-25 degrees and it is monitored that the soil is always moderately moist. After 7 days, you can see the first shoots, then they will need more light, and the heat indicators are lowered to 15-18 degrees.

Diseases and pests arising from care for marigolds

Marigold leaves
Marigold leaves

Due to the fact that the plant has a specific aroma, and the roots exude the same smell, filling the entire substrate nearby, it is customary to plant marigolds next to other garden representatives of the flora, protecting them from fusarium and diseases caused by fungi.

But it is worth noting that if the dryness is too high, the bushes can be affected by a spider mite, to combat which they are used as regular watering and spraying of the bushes, and also if the pest is identified, then insecticide treatment is carried out (for example, Aktara or Aktellik). If the weather is very rainy, then the plant is affected by fungal diseases or rot. Damaged leaves and stems must be removed immediately and sprayed with fungicides.

If in a rainy summer, the marigold bushes began to suffer from snails or slugs, then you can use special chemicals such as "Meta Thunderstorm" and the like.

When a trouble happened and the stems of these plants were frostbitten, then it is worth digging them in a compost heap, then this will protect against the appearance of midges or other pests.

To a flower grower on a note about marigolds

Blooming marigolds
Blooming marigolds

There are countries in Europe and Latin America, in which it is customary to prepare a seasoning from the flowers of marigolds called Imeretian saffron. On the territory of Mexico, the foliage of these plants is used by healers to treat the manifestations of intermittent fever and extreme exhaustion of the body (cachexia), relieve the manifestations of constipation and have a diuretic and diaphoretic effect. If foliage is taken in large doses, then it acts as an emetic.

There are some varieties that are considered to be the official flowers of the holiday when deceased relatives are honored - the Day of the Dead.

If you plant in the garden every 7-8 rows of beds with marigolds, it will protect the potatoes from the Colorado potato beetle. These plants will free the soil in the area from nematodes and wireworms.

Since the taste of marigold flowers is very similar to watercress, it is customary to use them for salads, making sauces and other dishes. Due to the phytoncidal properties, inflorescences are used for conservation and salting.

The flowers are used to prepare cosmetics for cleaning the skin. And in many countries this plant is known as a protector from unkind people.

Types of marigolds

In the photo, African marigolds erect
In the photo, African marigolds erect

African marigolds erect (Tagetes erecta). It is an annual plant, while the main shoot is well defined in the bush. The outlines of this plant are both compact and spreading. The stems are characterized by abundant branching. In height, they reach 120–130 cm, but there are those whose size starts from 30 cm. The surface of the stems is characterized by fine ribbing. On the tops of long peduncles, large basket inflorescences are formed, the diameter of which is 13-15 cm. The inflorescences usually take on double spherical outlines and a monochromatic color, including yellow, lemon, cream or bright orange tones, but some plants may also have two-color inflorescences. The flowering process begins in late June or early July.

The most popular varieties of this type are:

  • "Vinilla" whose height is 0.7 m. The color of the petals in the flowers is creamy white, while its double inflorescences in diameter can reach 12 cm.
  • "Kilimanjaro" characterized by a stem height of 60–70 cm, the inflorescences take a spherical shape.
  • Antigua with densely double inflorescences of large sizes, their diameter does not exceed 15 cm, flower petals with golden, lemon-yellow, orange or bright yellow colors. The height of the stems does not exceed 25 cm.
In the photo, French marigolds rejected
In the photo, French marigolds rejected

French marigolds (Tagetes patula) are found under the name Small-flowered marigolds or Sprawling marigolds. They are a low-growing compact annual, the height of which is measured in the range of 40-60 cm. Stems are usually straight, differing in branching. Leaf plates are linear-lanceolate, with a serrated edge and a pointed apex. Inflorescences crowning thick flowering stems and branches grow singly. The size of the heads of the inflorescences is average, their diameter reaches 8 cm, the leaves are spliced together. The shape of the inflorescences is simple or double, while the latter includes carnation, chrysanthemum and transitional types. The petals are yellow or orange. The flowering process begins in July.

Among florists, varieties from the series are most popular:

  • Bonanza, stems stretch up to 30 cm. Inflorescences are very decorative, have double outlines, their diameter reaches 5-6 cm. The duration of flowering is increased. These include Bonanza Bolero, Bonanza Orange and also Bonanaza Flame and the like.
  • "Carmen", with double inflorescences, the petals of which are corrugated and with a burgundy edge at the edge, while the middle is orange-yellow.
In the photo, Mexican thin-leaved marigolds
In the photo, Mexican thin-leaved marigolds

Mexican marigolds (Tagetes tenuifolia). It also has an annual life cycle, compact outlines and differs in stunted stems, the height of which can vary within 0, 2–0, 4 m. The root system is powerful, and there are also adventitious root processes on the stems in the root zone. Densely branched stems cover small leaf plates that adorn the bush with openwork-lace outlines, so it seems that they seem to hang in the air. There is a delicate pleasant aroma. During flowering, small baskets of inflorescences (their diameter is only 2-6 cm), the number of which is quite large. The shape of the inflorescences is simple. Baskets are crowned with short peduncles, gathering in larger corymbose groups. The petals in the flowers are painted in reddish-orange, golden-yellow and golden-orange tones. In culture, it is customary to grow this species since 1795, the number of its varietal variations reaches 70.

Among the total number of varieties, there are:

  • with inflorescences of a golden yellow hue, such as Golden Jam, Gnome and Lulu;
  • petals in flowers are golden-orange at Ursula;
  • bright flowers of a reddish-orange color in the Paprika variety.

The flowering of this species of marigold begins much earlier than that of other species. It is important to note that both unblown buds and newly opened flowers are always located on the outer stems of the bush, and those that have already grown pepper remain inside, therefore, the plants always look very neat.

Video about marigolds:

Photos of marigolds:

Photo of marigolds 1
Photo of marigolds 1