Learn the history of judo and the technical nuances that will help you quickly achieve technical excellence in the sport. Judo was created in Japan and quickly gained popularity all over the world. This type of struggle can be practiced by people of any age. Tracking the history of the formation of this combat sport is quite simple. We can safely say that it is based on the technique of jiu-jitsu, which in turn takes its origins from the national Japanese sport of sumo. Today we will talk about how you can do judo training at home.
How was judo created?
The history of judo begins in 1882, because it was at this time that the first Kodokan school was created by Jigoro Kano. Now it is difficult to imagine, but at first the area of "Kodokan" was just over 20 square meters. Despite the many difficulties faced by Jigoro Kano, he did his best to popularize a new kind of martial arts.
Five years later, the technical foundations of the Kodokan Judo style were formed. At the turn of the twentieth century, the first rules appeared, without which the judging of competitions was impossible. However, a little earlier, in 1888, judo was already taught to police and naval sailors. Judo quickly gained popularity at home and since 1907 this type of wrestling was included in the school curriculum.
All this could not pass unnoticed and judo fans became more and more. As a result, Kano became the head of one of the largest and most influential sports organizations in all of Japan. In 1889, the first school outside the Land of the Rising Sun was opened in France. Over time, judo began to be taught in other European countries.
Note that the new combat sport aroused the interest of the President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt. By his order, a separate room was equipped in the White House, in which Roosevelt himself mastered the art of judo under the guidance of experienced Japanese masters.
In 1926, Jigoro Kano decided to create a judo section for girls on the basis of his school in Tokyo. The master's wife took over the organization of this direction. In 1932, Kano himself with the best students during the Olympic Games held demonstration performances. After the outbreak of World War II, the spread of judo stopped and in many countries, including the United States, it was banned. However, already in 1948, all restrictions were removed.
From that moment, the rapid spread of a new type of martial arts began, and in the early fifties, the International Federation was founded, the head of which was the son of the founder, Risei Kano. By this time, judo was popular in almost all countries of the planet, and the first world championship was held. This event happened in 1956.
Athletes from twenty countries took part in the competition. Note that by this time there was no grading by weight category yet. This was first introduced at the 1961 World Cup held in the French capital. It was already the third world championship.
The Women's World Championships have been held since 1980. At the moment, the International Judo Federation unites 178 states of the planet. In Japan alone, about eight million people are engaged in this type of struggle. All over the world there are about two tens of millions of judo fans.
Judo technical nuances
We will talk more about conducting judo trainings at home, but now I would like to acquaint you with the technical features of this martial arts. Before the start of the fight and after its completion, the fighters perform a greeting bow. Today there are 3 technical sections in judo:
- Kata - combinations of exercises performed in pairs.
- Randori - wrestling according to certain rules, allowing you to master a particular technique.
- Shiai - competition between athletes.
Trainings are carried out on special mats made of synthetic materials or pressed straw. They are called tatami. Athletes in training and during competition do not wear shoes when performing barefoot. Judo clothing - judogi, consisting of a jacket and white pants. During international competitions, judogi of blue and white colors are used.
During the formation of wrestling in judo, there were four dozen techniques, which were various types of throws. As this combat sport developed, three technical sections were distinguished:
- Nage-waza - throwing technique.
- Katame-waza - immobilization technique, which includes painful (kansetsu waza) and suffocation (shime waza) techniques, as well as holding (osaekomi waza).
- Atemi-waza - the technique of striking pain points.
Almost all modern judo techniques are based on these sections. In judo, throws over the hip, back and shoulder, various stretching steps, holds and grips are allowed. In addition, there are two techniques for throwing - from the stand (tachi waza) and with a fall (sutemi waza). The throws made from the stand have their own subtypes. For example, they can be separated as follows:
- Hand throws - te waza.
- Thigh throws are koshi waza.
- Throwing with legs - asi waza.
Falling throws also have their own classification:
- Performed on the side - yoko sutemi waza.
- Performed on the back - masutemi waza.
Painful techniques are also widely used in judo technique, which can be divided into two groups: levers (limbs are extended at the joints) and knots (limbs are twisted in the joint area).
Fighters can perform painful holds on all joints, but in sports they are used only on the elbow. It is quite obvious that such a limitation was introduced to minimize the risk of injury. By the way about the injury risk of this sports discipline. Judo ranks 15th among all sports in terms of injury rate. If you decide to conduct your judo training at home, this should be remembered. At the same time, most of the injuries athletes get from their own mistakes.
Should you practice judo?
This question is of interest to many, and we will try to answer it now. Experts recommend starting training at the age of five or six. However, this does not mean that the road to judo is closed for adults. If you are interested in practicing this type of martial arts, then you can safely purchase judogi.
If you are a parent and have not yet decided which sports section to send your baby to and whether it is necessary to do this at all, then let's deal with this issue. To begin with, even judo training at home improves physical condition and strengthens the spirit. Practicing this type of wrestling will allow children to learn how to combine the work of the brain with the body.
In addition, judo requires great flexibility from athletes, and this quality is useful in everyday life. Equally important is the ability to increase your concentration. During training, children will be taught how to fight correctly and at the same time not harm the opponent and themselves. In conclusion, we recall that judo is an excellent way of self-defense and it definitely will not be superfluous in modern life.
Features of judo training at home
It is generally accepted that judo can be practiced exclusively on the tatami and with a partner. This is not entirely true, because it all depends on the tasks set. Working out with a partner will help you hone different techniques. However, not everyone has free time to attend the section regularly. In such a situation, you can conduct judo training at home.
It does not require much space, and as sports equipment you can use a pole and elastic thick ropes, for example, tires from bicycle wheels or simple rubber bands. Note that the length of the elastic ropes should be between 2.5 and 3 meters. Start your judo training at home with the simplest types of uchikomi:
- Fold the rubber band in half and attach it to the pole, approximately at the level of the shoulder joints. In this case, both ends of the bundle should hang freely.
- Take the ends of the tourniquet in your hands and take a step back. Pull the harness towards you to create the required tension.
- Begin to perform, gradually increasing the pace.
- Do 10 repetitions to the right and left, holding the tourniquet in constant tension.
- As you adapt to the load, the tension in the harness and the speed of the movement increase.
Note that training with a rubber band will help improve your body control skills. Also, when working with a tourniquet, do not wind its end in the palm of your hand, just hold them in your hand.
The second stage of the training involves the implementation of imitation movements. After the first part of the lesson, your hands will get tired enough, and it is worth moving on to working on your legs. To do this, we offer you a simple complex consisting of several movements:
- The legs are located at the level of the shoulder joints. Hold your hands as if grabbing the opponent by the kimono. After that, simulate a side sweep with your working leg and at the same time lower your hand down, imagining that you are pulling your opponent. After that, the working leg is quickly retracted and a similar movement is performed with the second. In each direction, you must perform 50 repetitions.
- This is a counter-attack movement against the side sweep called tsubame gaeshi. Perform it in each direction 20 times. In this case, the hands cannot be used to imitate the throwing movement.
- The next is the undercut movement with a turn, which is performed in each direction in 20 repetitions. To do it, you need to imagine that you are holding your opponent. Turn around and when imitating the enemy's turn, this movement should coincide with yours.
- The tai otoshi movement or front step should be done at high speed diagonally at a distance of 1.5 to 2 meters. Perform first in one direction, and then in the second, always moving diagonally. Ten repetitions must be performed in each direction.
If you have a certain level of initial physical fitness, then in the pauses between exercises it is better not to sit down, but to do push-ups, squats, crunches for the abdominal muscles, etc. We recommend gradually reducing the duration of the rest pauses. For judo training at home to be as effective as possible, practice daily for 40 minutes. As a result, you will be able to master the basic principles of this type of combat sports. However, it should be understood that high athletic performance can only be achieved during training with an experienced mentor.
Judo training on the street in the following video: