Characteristics of the navel flower, how to plant antemis and caring for a herbaceous plant in the open field, tips for reproduction, probable difficulties, curious facts, species and varieties.
Pupavka (Anthemis) can occur under a name similar to its transliteration in Latin - Anthemis. The plant belongs to the rather extensive Asteraceae family, which is often referred to as Compositae. Natural areas of distribution of this genus fall on the lands of Asia Minor and the Caucasus, and umbilicals are not uncommon in the Mediterranean regions. On the length from Europe to Scandinavia, the number of such representatives of the flora is much less, and if we talk about the Siberian expanses reaching Krasnoyarsk, then only one species of antemis grows there. Based on information obtained from the Plant List database, there are about 178 species in the genus that do not grow only in the tropics and latitudes with an arctic climate.
|Family name||Astral or Compositae|
|Growing period||Perennial or one-year|
|Vegetation form||Herbaceous, rarely semi-shrub|
|Breeds||Seeds, dividing a bush or grafting|
|Open ground transplant terms||In the spring, after return frosts|
|Landing rules||Maintain a distance between seedlings of 20-40 cm|
|Priming||Ordinary garden soil|
|Soil acidity values, pH||6, 5-7 (neutral)|
|Illumination level||Well lit by the sun|
|Humidity level||Moderate regular watering|
|Special care rules||When growing tall species, it is recommended to tie the stems|
|Height options||Up to 1 m|
|Flowering period||From early summer to September|
|Type of inflorescences or flowers||Single flowers at the ends of the stems|
|Color of flowers||The marginal female flowers are yellow or white, the central bisexual flowers are always yellow|
|Fruit type||Reverse conical achene|
|The timing of fruit ripening||From late July or September|
|Application in landscape design||Planting in flower beds and in flower beds, for cutting, as a decoration for borders|
The pupavka got its scientific name thanks to the famous botanist and taxonomy of the flora of the planet Karl Linnaeus (1707-1778), who took the Greek term "anthemion" for it, meaning "flower". Due to the external similarity of flowers, you can often hear how this plant is called daisies, however, these representatives of the flora are classified according to the classification to another genus of Daisies (Matricaria), although this family. The following nicknames of antemis are popular - yellow chamomile and yellow flowers or jaundice, as well as navel, field saffron, field berry, golden-bellied and many others.
In the genus of navels, there are species with a one-year life cycle, but perennials are also found. Basically, their vegetation form is herbaceous, but in rare cases the plants take on semi-shrub outlines. Shoots grow simple or may branch slightly. The stems are characterized by a green tint at the top, but lignification occurs at the base, and therefore the color turns brown. Their height can reach one meter, but the minimum size of the shoots corresponds to 10 cm. The roots of antemis are rod-shaped with branches, brown, the root processes are thin, have a light brown tint.
On the stems of the umbilicus, leaves unfold with a pinnately dissected or pinnately split form, a rich green or gray-green color. In this case, the leaves are placed in the next sequence on the shoots. The deciduous mass gives off a pleasant aroma.
With the flowering of antemis, which begins from the first summer days and stretches almost until September, single basket inflorescences are formed at the ends of the flowering stems, which is typical for all members of the Asteraceae family. Such baskets are made up of a wrapper, which is leaflets that take on an ovoid or oblong shape. The flower bed of the inflorescence is covered with films.
The flowers along the edges (marginal) are female, pseudo-ligate, they are characterized by a white or yellow tint. Those flowers that form in the middle are bisexual, tubular and yellow in color. There are species in which the edge flowers take on a pink color scheme. The diameter of an open antemis flower is 5 cm. It is interesting that the plant is called “navel” precisely because of the structure of the inflorescence, since its central part with tubular flowers protrudes strongly upward and resembles colorful golden buttons.
After flowering, fruits are formed, represented by hemicarps in antemis, characterized by an inverse conical shape. When the seeds are ripe, they spill out onto the ground or propagation occurs through the wind. Ripening begins at the end of July.
Anthemis is an unassuming plant that a gardener, even without significant experience, can cope with growing. And since the navel also has shade tolerance and pleases with a long and lush flowering, it has been cultivated in our gardens for a long time.
Anthemis: planting and caring for a herb in the open field
- Place for planting navel you should choose an open and well-lit one, only then the plant will thank you with a lush and long flowering. Some of the species can tolerate a little shading, but this will affect the number of inflorescences formed. Do not plant yellow bushes in places where there is a possibility of moisture accumulation from rains or after melting snow cover. This can cause the loss of the plant due to decay of its root system and rapid death. Also, the proximity of groundwater will be harmful to the navel.
- It is easy to pick up the ground for antemis. This representative of the flora feels great on any garden substrate. Some of the species (for example, Pupavka noble) prefer a sandy or stony composition of the substrate, but in any case, the soil should be well drained and it is easy to let moisture and air to the roots of the plant. However, field saffron on a fertile and loose substrate will show the best growth rates. To do this, you can add a little compost and river sand to the garden soil.
- Planting navel it is carried out in autumn or spring, but it depends on what will be planted. If there are seedlings, then the best period for her will be May, when the return frosts have already receded and will not harm the young plants. Early September is preferable for planting delenok. It is required to lay drainage in the planting hole in the first layer. As it, you can use small expanded clay or pebbles, then the prepared soil mixture and only put a yellow flower seedling with a mot. The distance at which it is recommended to place the seedlings of the golden-bellied plant is 20–40 cm, but this directly depends on the species that is planned to be cultivated.
- Watering when growing antemis, it is recommended to be carried out in moderation, but regularly. Despite the fact that the plant is characterized by drought resistance, watering will contribute to the growth of foliage rosette and lush flowering. Some gardeners water yellow chamomile only in dry and hot weather. This is because if you overdo it with the amount of moisture, it will quickly destroy the gold-beetle.
- General advice on care. When growing navel, when the flowering process is complete, you need to prune its stems, leaving only 10 cm from the base. This procedure will stimulate the future growth of lateral shoots, which will become the source of new flowering stems. If the conditions for the growth of field saffron are favorable, then it will be possible to re-enjoy the flowering. When tall species of antemis are grown, their stems tend to fall apart over time, so they should be tied up. Often, shoots with flowers are cut and dried for later use in dry bouquets. Drying should be done in a shaded area (eg attic) with good ventilation. The stems are tied in bunches and hung down in inflorescences from the ceiling.
- Fertilizers when caring for antemis, it should be applied to the ground when planting, no further plant feeding is required.
- Umbilical transplant held in spring or with the arrival of September. The change of the place of growth by the golden-button plant is transferred quite easily. Usually, the transplant is combined with dividing the bush. This is required when the flowers become small and the flowering is not so lush and long-lasting. But despite this, the life expectancy of yellow chamomile is approximately 5-6 years.
- Wintering antemis will not trumpet efforts from the gardener, since all species are characterized by high frost resistance and should not be covered for the winter.
- The use of antemis in landscape design. Such delicate plants will look good when planted in mixed flower beds or decorate the voids between stones in rock gardens or rockeries. With the help of undersized or medium-sized varieties, it is possible to form curbs. There are varieties that perform well in cutting, since the inflorescences remain fresh for a long time. If you dry the stems with opened umbilical-basket inflorescences, then they will not lose their rich color and with the help of such dried flowers you can form colorful phytocompositions.
The best neighbors for anthemis will be irises and peonies, as well as such tall flora as hosts or aquilegia.
Breeding tips for navel (anthemis)
To grow umbilical bushes on their site, seed or vegetative methods are used. If you use the latter method, then they are engaged in dividing the bush or rooting cuttings.
Reproduction of antemis using seeds
This representative of the flora, even without human participation, has the ability to reproduce by self-seeding. You can sow seeds both before winter and grow seedlings. If the seeds are planted in late autumn, before the soil is covered with snow, they will undergo natural stratification and when the soil warms up thoroughly, field saffron sprouts will appear.
With the seedling method, the sowing of umbilical seeds is carried out in a loose substrate in mid-spring (with the arrival of April). The soil is poured into the seedling box, the seeds of antemis are distributed on the surface of the soil and sprinkled with a thin layer of the same substrate. Crops are sprayed with warm water from a spray bottle. The container for creating greenhouse conditions should be covered with transparent plastic wrap or a piece of glass should be placed on top.
The place where the anthemis seedling box will be installed must be warm. Crop maintenance will consist of spraying the soil as it dries on the surface and regularly ventilating it. When the seedlings become clearly visible on the surface of the substrate (after about 5–8 days), the container with the seedlings is transferred to a more illuminated place, for example, on a windowsill, but shading is provided from direct sunlight. If this is not done, then under the rays of the sun, the delicate stems and leaves of the navel can burn.
When the return frosts recede in May, then you can transplant antemis seedlings into open ground. Her age by this time will be about two months. The distance that you need to leave between seedlings when planting will depend on the type and height of growth of the stems, but on average it will be 20-40 cm.
Reproduction of antemis by dividing the bush
The best time for this procedure will be autumn, when the blooming of the navel bushes is complete. The pits are prepared for transplanting in advance. The plant is dug out of the ground and using a garden tool (for example, a sharpened shovel or knife), the root system is divided. Delenders should not be made too small so that adaptation is not difficult. Until the delenki take root, and the adaptation period (about a month) has passed, moderate and regular soil moisture should be provided for the golden-bellied plant.
Reproduction of antemis by cuttings
This method is suitable for perennial species. So in the spring, blanks about 5-10 cm long are cut from the stems (this depends on the height of the shoots) and planted on a specially prepared bed with diffused lighting or in pots filled with peat-sandy soil. Until the cuttings begin to bloom, young leaves need to be watered in moderation. If pupavka seedlings were grown in pots, then with the arrival of autumn, you can transplant into open ground or, to be sure, wait until a new spring.
Probable difficulties in garden cultivation of navel
You can delight flower growers with the fact that antemis is practically not affected by harmful insects and diseases, since all its parts are saturated with essential oils and have a strong unpleasant odor repelling pests. However, this does not apply to slugs, who like the delicate leaves of the golden-bellied plant. Such gastropod pests prefer to settle in lowlands, where the soil is moist and moist, and dense vegetation predominates. Slimes with the arrival of spring begin to eat up young shoots and leaves almost to the root, and besides, flowers of field saffron bushes.
Only their traces will be recognized as a sign of the presence of such pests, since on ordinary days slugs choose to eat in the evening and at night, and during the day they hide under lumps of soil or foliage, boards and in other secluded places in the garden. Traces of the presence of gastropods are strips of silvery mucus, which they leave on the leaves, stems of artemis, plant trunks or soil. If the weather is hot and dry for a long time, then most of the slugs will inevitably die.
But if the weather is not the case, then gastropod pests multiply quite quickly and can jeopardize garden and flower plantations. There are many methods of control, from collecting slugs by hand, to treating them with chemicals (for example, metaldehydes, such as Meta-Thunder). You can set traps for slugs. Laying out pieces of boards or roofing material on the site, where the pests will hide during the day, there they can be caught and destroyed. Also, for the destruction of slugs on the plantings of the navel, spraying with a solution of ammonium nitrate (in 1.5%) or copper or iron vitriol (about 1%) can be carried out.
Another problem will be planting antemis bushes in places where moisture can stagnate from melting snow or during periods of prolonged precipitation. This can even lead to the complete destruction of such plantations.
Read also about the fight against diseases and pests when growing brachycoma
Curious facts about the pupavka flower
Interestingly, the odorous properties of umbilical foliage are used both as an insecticidal agent and for medicinal purposes. This refers to the type of smelly jaundice (Anthemis cotula) or canine, which is called smelly chamomile or mayvid. The inflorescences of this plant are saturated not only with essential oils, but with such active substances as glycosides and flavonoids. Thanks to this, drugs based on antemis canine were used to stop blood, as an antifebrile and choleretic agent, which also has diaphoretic properties. The procurement of medicinal raw materials should be dealt with during the flowering of the golden-bean plant. The collected material is carefully dried and only after that decoctions and tinctures are prepared from it.
At the same time, the navel is poisonous to animals such as horses or pets (cats or dogs).
For decorative purposes, it is customary to use species such as Anthemis marschalliana and Anthemis iberica. Flowers of the species such as Anthemis tinctoria have long been used to give fabrics a beautiful shade (lemon yellow color), as well as as a preparation with insecticidal properties. The same species is characterized by an amazing frost resistance and is able to survive a decrease in temperature to -30 degrees below zero.
Types and varieties of antemis
Pupavka dyeing (Anthemis tinctoria),
also named Anthemis dyeing, Pupavka yellow or Cota tinctoria … Has a kind of strong aroma inherent in its parts. The specific name tinctoria translates as "dyeing plant", because flowers in ancient times were actively used to obtain yellow-colored paint that dyed fabrics. It is this species that is called yellow chamomile, yellow flowers or jaundice. The natural area of distribution falls on the western regions of Europe (excluding the southern regions), this also includes the northern European lands (Russia and the Caucasus, Siberia and Crimea, Western Asia). Preference for growth is given to wastelands and meadows, dry meadows and roadsides. It is not uncommon for a pupavka to dye near a person's dwelling.
The species has a herbaceous vegetation with branched shoots growing straight. The height of an adult specimen is 25–100 cm. Leaves with pinnately dissected outlines grow on the stems of antemis dyeing. The surface of the leaf lobes is wrinkled. The foliage is painted in a bluish-green hue due to the presence of cobweb-like villi on the surface. The size of the leaves is quite large.
In the first growing year, a leaf rosette is formed at the umbilical plant, and only by the second summer elongated flowering stems, crowned with baskets, appear from the central part of the bush. Their diameter at full disclosure reaches 6 cm. The marginal flowers in the inflorescence take on a yellow or orange tint. The flowering process stretches over the entire summer season. The fruits are achenes with a flattened tetrahedral surface.
The type of antemis dyeing has been cultivated as a crop since 1561. On its basis, a large number of forms and varieties have been derived, among which the most commonly used are:
- Grillah Gold possessing rather large inflorescences-baskets of a golden-yellow hue.
- Anthemis Calveya (Anthemis var.kelwayi) 30-60 cm high, blooms for 4 weeks in June, inflorescences of a deep yellow color are formed.
Bieberstein's pupavka (Anthemis biebersteiniana)
or Anthemis Biberstein resembles from the territory of Asia Minor. Perennial, the stems of which do not exceed a quarter of a meter in height. The foliage on the stems takes on a feathery shape. The color of the leaves is silvery-grayish. When flowering on elongated peduncles, the formation of inflorescences with a basket-like shape, a golden yellow tone, occurs. For cultivation, it is recommended to use well-drained soil and plant in a well-lit area. For reproduction, it is recommended to use the seed or vegetative method (cuttings or dividing the bush).
Noble navel (Anthemis nobilis
) or Anthemis noble may occur under the name Chamaemelum nobile … The native area of natural growth falls on the territory of Europe. Perennial, the stems of which are capable of growing up to 15–20 cm in height. Very fragrant leaves unfold on them, quietly wintering under the snow. The shape of the leaf plates is pinnate. Flowering is extended to July-August. The flowers are very reminiscent of chamomile baskets. The soil is preferable sandy, the location is sunny. Reproduction is carried out both by seeds and by dividing an overgrown bush.
The best varieties of antemis noble are:
- Flore Pleno, in which terry inflorescences are formed throughout the summer.
- Trainer (Treneague) characterized by the absence of flowering, but the ability to form a ground cover "carpet", by means of stems 5–8 cm high. Leaves on the shoots are feathery, fragrant, non-falling, overwintering. In hot regions, this variety of antemis noble can be used as a substitute for lawn plants. Shows resistance to trampling. Not recommended for landing in lowlands, where there is a possibility of moisture stagnation from melting snow or rain.
Mountain Pupavka (Anthemis montana)
or Anthemis mountain may be named Anthemis cupaniana … The native regions are considered to be the territory of Southern Europe and Syria. Perennial, with stems ranging from 25-30 cm in height, which allows them to form a colorful carpet. On the stems, pinnate leaf plates grow, of a silvery-grayish hue. The foliage exudes a pleasant aroma.
The flowering process at the umbilicus of the mountain falls on the period of August-September. On long flowering stems, the formation of inflorescences with the shape of baskets occurs, the marginal flowers in which are white or pinkish in color. The median tubular flowers are always bright yellow. After flowering is over, pruning is recommended to encourage dense stem growth. When planting, the choice must be stopped on well-drained soil and a flower bed, illuminated from all sides by the sun. Can transfer lime content to soil mixtures.
Pupavka Tranchel (Anthemis tranzscheliana)
or Anthemis Tranchel is of Karadag origin. In its appearance, the plant is similar to common chamomile, but only of a smaller size. The foliage has a needle-like shape and a bluish color. The name of the species was given in honor of V. A. Tranchel, who was actively interested in flora and collecting magnificent herbariums, including on the Karadag. Bushes of this species choose volcanic rocks for growth. Blooming in May. At the tops of the stems, whitish basket inflorescences are formed.
Stinking navel (Anthemis cotula)
also referred to as Pupavka dog, Dog chamomile or Anthemis the smelly … The specific name "cotula" comes from the Greek term translated as "small bowl". The plant has a very strong unpleasant odor. It can be found in nature in the Mediterranean, in the northern regions of Africa, in the east of Europe. Has undergone a kind of naturalization in the North American lands and the Australian continent, in New Zealand and in southern Africa. It spreads on wastelands and along fences, on roadsides and fields. It is recognized as a weed due to its ability to infest crops.
The stems of the umbilical smelly have branching from the base. The height of the shoots is within 15-30 cm. They grow upright or erect. The root is thin, tap-shaped. In rare cases, hairs appear on the surface of the stems, but usually it is bare. The foliage is devoid of petioles, the shape of the leaves is ovoid-oblong with a double-pinnate dissection. The leaf lobes are narrow-oblong, their width is about 1 mm, there is a short sharpening at the apex. The leaf edge is whole or may have 2-3 teeth.
During flowering, which begins in June, in canine anthemis, single basket inflorescences open on thin flowering stems. They lack a thickened pedicel. The receptacle has a bulge, as well as bracts, on its entire surface. The flowers that form in the middle are tubular, yellow in color, they grow bisexual. Ripening of fruits begins in the middle of summer.