The disappeared twin phenomenon (FIB) and its explanation. Everything about the causes of this pathology. Methods for determining the loss of one of the embryos without the knowledge of the pregnant woman, the symptoms of the syndrome in the surviving child. Vanishing twin syndrome is a mysterious anomaly that occurs during multiple pregnancies and eventually only one child is born. With it, in the early stages of a woman, two or more embryos begin to develop in the uterus, but after the end of the first trimester, only one remains. Scientists have tried to explain this mysterious disappearance by doing a number of studies in this area.
Description of disappeared twin syndrome
In 1945, specialists first drew attention to a rare anomaly, recognizing its manifestations as isolated cases in gynecological practice.
With the invention of ultrasound diagnostics, doctors changed their minds, having discovered a much larger number of such "missing" embryos. At the same time, after the first trimester, pregnancy continued in women, and a completely healthy child was born. Consequently, during the period from conception to 12 weeks, one of the fetuses destroyed the embryonic tissue of the other, absorbing it or merging with it.
More seriously, this issue was taken not so long ago, with an emphasis on the theory of Hilbert Gottlieb. The well-known American psychologist, with his theory of probabilistic epigenesis, argued about the influence of the environment, neuronal and genetic activity on the born baby. At the same time, the main conclusion of the scientist was that all the sources of the listed aspects should be sought in the prenatal period of the child's development.
After much debate, scientists have come to a common verdict that disappeared twin syndrome is a consequence of a kind of natural selection that takes place in the mother's womb. After such an outcome of events, the fetus is either absorbed by the mother's body (twin), or is mummified, or, having attached to the placenta, turns into some kind of neoplasm (cyst).
If the pathology is detected at a later date, then we are already talking about fetal freezing. Therefore, it is by no means possible to consider the tragedy in life and the phenomenon of the disappearance of the twin identical phenomena. In this situation, urgent hospitalization of the expectant mother is necessary so that the second child does not suffer.
Causes of intrauterine anomaly
It should be immediately noted that this phenomenon is still being closely studied by specialists. The origins of the disappeared twin syndrome in most cases should be sought in the following provocative factors:
- Different potential of embryos … The voiced disparity in the early stages of pregnancy often leads to the development (in the form of a single fetus) of a more viable one from the embryos and the disappearance of another.
- "Nature's mistake" … She corrects it in the first weeks of an interesting position in a woman. One twin gives way to the other, which is typical for one third of multiple pregnancies.
- Safety stock … Some scientists are sure that in this way nature is hedged. As a result, one of the fetuses still continues to function after the disappearance of the other, after which a healthy child is born.
- Rejection by the maternal body … This is due to the fact that one of the embryos has any genetic abnormalities. With a disturbed chromosome set, such a fetus is destroyed by the uterus.
The theory of the formation of intrauterine "cannibalism", which was willingly picked up by gullible persons, does not stand up to criticism. In the first weeks of pregnancy, twins are a compound (conglomerate) of embryonic cells that divide, and do not represent the rudiments of a personality.
Risk group for the occurrence of FIB
Any carrying of a child is associated with certain difficulties, even with the ideal health of the expectant mother. However, in some cases, there is a contingent of pregnant women in whom disappeared twin syndrome is much more common:
- Ladies over 30-35 years old … In this situation, we are not talking about the need to give birth exclusively at a young age. Future motherhood should be treated responsibly. However, experts recommend remembering that a more mature woman is more likely to be subject to all sorts of unpleasant surprises when carrying two or more fetuses.
- Twins in the genus (triplets) … Heredity is a serious thing and almost impossible to correct. In this situation, you should be prepared for the fact that the pregnancy will be multiple and there is a risk of FIB.
- ECO … In this case, everything depends on the chosen clinic and the professionalism of the specialists working there. It is with a hereditary predisposition and IVF that most often two embryos enter the woman's uterus at once.
- Use of fertility drugs … Interfering with the work of your body, you should prepare for an unexpected turn of events. This is especially true for those women who self-medicate on the advice of their girlfriends. As a result, everything can end with both a successful pregnancy and the loss of one of the embryos in the first trimester.
The main signs of disappeared twin syndrome
Many people are unaware that a twin was with them in their mother's womb. FIB scientists usually determine by some symptoms that are very similar to a real miscarriage.
Signs of pathology in a pregnant woman
In most cases, ladies in an interesting position are not aware of the changes taking place in their bodies. Multiple pregnancies with a missing twin are often accompanied by the following symptoms:
- Uterine bleeding … It can arise for a variety of reasons. One of them is the threat of miscarriage, which sometimes does not occur even after the woman refuses to visit the doctor. Subsequently, she gives birth to a healthy baby, not even suspecting that he could have a twin.
- Lower abdominal cramps … After a visit to the doctor and an ultrasound scan, the woman calms down, because the study shows the normal course of her pregnancy. As a result, everything is fine with the fetus, and the second one at that moment could simply disappear at the same 7-8 week of bearing twins.
- Convulsions … If the expectant mother is not subject to tonic (excessive physical exertion), clonic (problems with the functioning of the cerebral cortex) or partial (epilepsy) spasms, then there is a likelihood of one of the twins disappearing with such symptoms.
In any of the above cases, you must contact your doctor, because joking with your health is strictly prohibited during pregnancy. The psychology of Twin Syndrome is that it is better to prevent trouble than to feel the consequences of it.
FIB symptoms in a child
A baby who is born may retain some memories on a subconscious level when he was still in the womb. Experts insist on the fact that even after 8 weeks of development, twins influence each other without having the rudiments of a personality. In this case, we are no longer talking about the mentioned intrauterine mythical cannibalism, but about some connection at the genetic level between embryos. As a result of this contact, the child may develop physical and emotional deviations from the generally accepted norm after the loss of his twin:
- A sixth finger or toe in a newborn … Quite a popular hypothesis among doctors it is believed that this happens after "resorption" in the first trimester of the twin baby crumbs.
- Chatting with a non-existent friend … Adults are equally alarmed when this happens to both their toddler and the older child. Specialists, when excluding his diagnosis of schizophrenia, consider this factor to be the result of FIB.
- Passion for mirrors … It is in them, at a subconscious level, that the child is looking for his copy, which has not been born. The exception is narcissists, for whom narcissism is the norm.
- Strange dreams … To children, and then to adults, periodically during the immersion in the kingdom of Morpheus, their non-existent twin comes. Dreams like these are very realistic and colorful, but often cause extremely disturbing thoughts.
- Doubts in your field … In this case, we are talking about the XY chromosome and XX set, which began to develop in twins in the womb during one pregnancy. If one of them disappeared according to ultrasound data in the first trimester of gestation, then the child who was then born may not be sure of his gender as he grows up.
All of these signs may indicate the once disappeared twin. At the same time, it is not recommended to take the provided data for truth. Some of the symptoms sounded may be varieties of certain mental disorders.
Preventing twin disappearance in the first trimester
It is almost impossible to completely prevent this phenomenon. However, there are some precautions any woman can take:
- Careful planning of pregnancy … As already mentioned, the uterus can destroy one of the embryos if it has any developmental abnormalities. Therefore, before deciding to become parents, it is necessary to be examined by all specialists. Particular attention should be paid to visits to a geneticist, consultation with whom, in most cases, will help prevent trouble.
- Early detection of multiple pregnancies … Modern medicine allows you to determine your interesting position in the shortest possible time. With any suspicion of characteristic changes in your body, you need to take a test that you can actually buy at the nearest pharmacy. In any case, it is recommended to play it safe even after its negative result and undergo an ultrasound examination. It is this that will help determine the presence of more than one embryo in a woman's uterus.
- Pregnancy preservation measures … Being at risk, expectant mothers of twins should be constantly monitored by their doctor. If necessary, they need to go to the hospital to save the twins. It is in these conditions, with the help of Doppler, that specialists will be able to observe the heartbeat of both embryos.
If all the proposed preventive measures did not help and one of the twins disappeared in the first trimester, then you should think about the surviving child. Further actions of the parents should be aimed at helping him get rid of unreasonable anxiety and incomprehensible experiences. What is disappeared twin syndrome - watch the video:
Not all women undergo an ultrasound examination in the first 12 weeks of gestation. Consequently, they may not even be aware that two or more embryos initially began to develop in their uterus. If the expectant mother found out about the accomplished fact, then she should not make claims to specialists, insisting on their medical error and incompetence. Phantom Twin Syndrome is a phenomenon in which it is pointless to look for the culprit. It should be emphasized for oneself that neither the woman herself nor her second child suffered during the FIB.