Polyandry as a form of marriage, the main types. The history of polyandry, modern realities. Does polyandry exist in Russia and how is it manifested?
Polyandry is a type of group marriage in which one woman has multiple husbands. Known since ancient times, in the present it has been preserved among some peoples who are backward in their socio-economic development.
Why do women need polyandry?
Polyandry is a form of marriage where a woman lives with several men. Such a union is characteristic not only of people. In the animal kingdom, some species of fish, birds and insects "suffer" from polytheism. For example, some bottom fish lay eggs in the nests of several males at once, so that they fertilize it with their milk.
Man came out of the animal world. Primitive people were defenseless against nature, often men died hunting or in skirmishes with a hostile tribe. Not all of them managed to "insure" themselves in their children.
Poor living conditions forced women to live in polyandry marriage. One man was clearly not enough to eat enough and prolong the life of his kind. At this time, the woman-mother was considered the keeper of the hearth and constantly gave birth from her numerous husbands-relatives. The consanguineous family was the basis of the clan-tribe in the era of matriarchy.
When living conditions improved, more advanced weapons and equipment for hunting appeared, men began to bring more prey, and the well-fed life of the tribe depended on them. Matriarchy was replaced by patriarchy. The male hunter became the head of the family. Group marriage (polygamy) changed in primitive society. The women became dependent on their fellow tribesmen.
Polyandry-polyandry was replaced by polygamy, when the husband already had several wives. So polyandry and polygyny are varieties of group marriage, successively replacing each other as human society “matures” - from the primitive herd to civilization.
It's important to know! Polyandry is forced polyandry, as it was in ancient times, when primitive man strove to survive in unfavorable living conditions for him.
exogamy in the ancient world
Polyandry and modernity
Pictured is polyandry in Nepal
Currently, polyandry is not widespread in the world. There are not so many countries in which polyandry is allowed. These are small states of Central Asia, some islands in the Pacific Ocean. Here, polyandry is permitted by law. Separately, India, Kenya in Africa and backward tribes in the Amazonian jungle should be named.
Countries with polyandry, where women are officially allowed to have multiple husbands, are:
- Republic of India … A large country with ancient traditions. In some remote areas, they are tenacious to this day. In the Indian epic Mahabharata, the royal daughter was the common wife of five brothers. The eldest of them lost her at the dice to a prince of a different kind. War broke out between the families of the Pandavas and the Kauravas. The erotic "Kamasutra" mentions polyandry. Polyandry in India is found today among Ladakhi. These few people live in the states of Jammu and Kashmir. The custom dictates a girl to have several husbands-brothers or brothers to have one wife. Understand how you want! A woman could also take her husband on the side, if he passed the "hot" test, became a spouse. The rest didn’t mind.
- People's Republic of China (PRC) … China is a large and multinational country. Some nationalities live in remote areas where there is no smell of civilization at all. They adhere to their ancient traditions to this day. An example is the following case: the husband became blind, could not manage the household. To do this, the wife hired another man and paid him with sex. Such a relationship between kinsmen and villagers was considered quite acceptable. Although between husbands in such families, hostile relations can arise. The demographic situation contributes to the revival of polygamy in modern China. There are 33 million more men in the country than women. In order not to remain bachelors, they are forced to "share" one "beloved" for two, of course, when she does not mind. This was the case in the country a couple of centuries ago, and it sometimes happens today.
- Tibet (since 1950, part of the PRC) … Fraternal polyandry in Tibet today will surprise no one. The older brother chooses his wife, the younger ones humbly accept her. Husbands distribute marital responsibilities each week in turn. Others at this time do not poke your nose! There are many different nuances of plurality in Tibet. One thing is certain, a Tibetan woman has great rights. A girl can choose a lover, and this is not reprehensible. She does not hide her love affairs, she is proud of them and flaunts: she wears a necklace with coins given to her by a macho. Big monisto - many fans and sweet joys!
- Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal … Highland country in the Himalayas. As in neighboring Tibet, polyandry in Nepal is defined by extreme poverty. There is little good land that can feed a person. According to ethnographers, far fewer children are born in a polyandric marriage than in several monogamous unions. Hence the conclusion: polyandry in Nepal limits the birth rate. In a country where mountains are everywhere, poor in land, this is extremely important. It is unrealistic to feed too many people. All types of group marriage were banned in Nepal in 1963. Polyany survived only in the north of the country among the Sherpas and some other tribes.
- Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka … Although the country declares socialism, it does not forget its ancient traditions. "Eating in the same house" (as they call polygamy in their own dialect) is officially permitted. The islanders practice fraternal and associative polyandry. In the latter case, the wife “starts” with one husband, and when she gets into “taste”, she can bring several more into the house.
- Kingdom of Bhutan … Highland country in the Himalayas between India and China. At the beginning of the 20th century, polyandry was widespread in the country. The reasons are the same as in neighboring Nepal and Tibet. Currently found among the Minaro people.
- African countries … Polyandry suddenly came to life again in Kenya. Here, in 2013, after many years of prohibition, a woman's marriage with two men was registered. Earlier, polyandry in the country was practiced among the large Maasai tribe.
- Amazon Indians … More than 50 tribes inhabit the tropical jungles of the vast Amazon basin in South America. They all speak different languages and have their own traditions. The tribes adhere to ancient forms of marriage, when polyandry and polygamy are acceptable. In this they are similar to other peoples of the world who have existed or are now practicing polyandry.
- Oceania islands … Thousand Islands in the Pacific Ocean between Asia, America and Australia. These are Polynesia, Melanesia, Haiti, New Guinea, New Zealand and many other islets and atolls. Free morals reigned here from time immemorial, it is not for nothing that they are called the "Islands of Free Love". From the age of 10, boys and girls can have sexual relations. In the villages there are special "houses of love", where they pass the basics of sexual life. Until recently, in Polynesia, any beautiful girl was considered the common property of all young people. True, a free connection did not commit to anything. We got together, fell in love, parted. Life goes on - until the next free meeting with a new loving friend. But a beauty, many looked at her … There was a custom when men exchanged their wives. In fact, one woman lived with two husbands. And this was considered the norm. Now times are different, but the prostitution introduced to the Islands of Free Love by civilized Europeans is not viewed by the local population as something immoral. Indiscriminate sexual pleasures have always been considered the norm here.
It is interesting! The plurality of the world is currently limited to a few countries. In civilized states it is prohibited. Not least influenced by the Christian religion.