Characteristics of the trachelium plant, agricultural technology for planting and growing on the site and indoors, breeding rules, recommendations for combating diseases and pests, interesting notes, species and varieties.
Trachelium (Trachelium) is a plant from an oligotypic genus (that is, the number of species in it is very small), characterized by the presence in the embryo of a pair of cotyledons located opposite each other (dicotyledonous). This representative of the flora belongs to the Campanulaceae family. The area of natural distribution falls mainly on the lands of the western regions of the Mediterranean (this includes Italy and Spain), and there is also an opportunity to meet the trachelium in North Africa. However, this flower was first discovered in ancient Greece. Today, the species are often cultivated in many European regions as ornamental plants.
|Breeds||Seed or dividing the bush|
|Open ground transplant terms||The end of May|
|Landing rules||The wells are formed at a distance of 30–35 cm from each other|
|Priming||Nutritious, drained, loose|
|Soil acidity values, pH||6, 5-7 (neutral) or 7-8 (slightly alkaline)|
|Illumination level||Well-lit flower bed|
|Humidity level||Moderate watering|
|Special care rules||Weeding and feeding are required|
|Height options||0.2-0.8 m|
|Flowering period||Aug. Sept|
|Type of inflorescences or flowers||Shield, panicle or umbellate inflorescences of small flowers|
|Color of flowers||Purple, lilac, pink, light blue, blue and white|
|Fruit type||Seed capsule|
|The timing of fruit ripening||As it ripens from September|
|Decorative period||A month and a half in summer, in natural conditions, evergreen|
|Application in landscape design||Group planting on ridges, flower beds and flower beds, border decoration, for cutting|
The name trachelium was given back in ancient times due to the fact that it was noticed that the plant has the ability to help with diseases of the throat. Hence it went, since the word "trachelos" is translated from Greek as "throat".
All three types of trochelium are rhizome perennials. Under natural conditions, they grow evergreen with a semi-shrub vegetation. The height that the branches of a plant can reach varies within the range of 20–80 cm, while the width of one specimen reaches 0.3 m. The stems grow erect, with very large branching. The color of the shoots when they are young is green, but gradually it changes to brownish green. Along the entire length of the shoots, attaching with petioles, leaf plates unfold. The arrangement of the foliage is next.
The leaves of the trachelium are lanceolate or with oblong contours. Along the edge, they have a sharpening that resembles a jaggedness. The top is pointed. The length of the leaf plates is in the range of 5–10 cm. The foliage surface is smooth, venation is visible on it. The deciduous mass is painted in a bright or dark green color scheme. It happens that purple or lilac colors appear on the leaves.
When grown outdoors, trachelium blooms in August and can stretch until the first frost. Flowers are very small in size with bracts of the same size, collected in loose or dense flat inflorescences of corymbose, panicle or umbellate form. The diameter of the inflorescences is 7-15 cm. The color of the petals in the flowers is purple and lilac, as well as pink, blue, blue and snow-white. The inflorescences of the trachelium crown the tops of the stems, and since the flowers that make up them are miniature, but a large number of them are formed, the inflorescences resemble fluffy clouds towering over the deciduous mass.
The flowers of the trachelium are five-lobed and have fused petals, which gives the corolla the shape of a tiny bell. Shortened stamens and a very long and thin ovary tube protrude from it. Its length reaches 4–6 mm. It is these tubes that add fluffiness to the inflorescences. When flowering, a pleasant rich aroma hovers over the plantings of this plant. If you plan to grow trachelium for cutting, then planting is carried out in greenhouses and then flowering begins with the arrival of spring.
After the flowers have passed pollination, the fruitlets ripen in the trachelium in the form of very small bolls. Their shape is in the form of a ball or pear. The surface of the capsules is covered with thin films of three valves, which, when ripe, open in the upper part. Inside the capsules are small glossy black seeds.
A plant like trachelium, despite its decorative effect, is not difficult to care for and it is worth making a little effort and not violating the rules of agricultural technology in order to acquire such spectacular flowers in the garden, which also have medicinal properties.
Agrotechnology of planting and growing trachelium in the open field and indoors
- Landing place should be selected taking into account the natural preferences of this representative of the flora, namely, open and well-lit, but at the same time protected from drafts. It is not necessary to plant the trachelium where there will be a possibility of moisture stagnation from precipitation. It is lighting that is an important aspect when growing a plant, if it does not have enough quantity, then the flowering will be very short. But it is important that shade is provided at noon, as direct sunlight can burn the leaves. When growing trachelium indoors, it is recommended to place the pot on the sill of the southwest or southeast window. In the northern location, the bush will not have enough light, the flowering will become scarce, and the stems will stretch ugly and the foliage will turn pale. On the south-facing windowsill, you will need to provide shading at lunchtime, pulling light curtains.
- Trachelium soil when growing, both in the garden and in the pot, it is recommended to select nutritious, well-drained and loose. It is important that its acidity is alkaline (pH 7 and slightly higher), but the normal reaction of a soil mixture with a pH of 6, 5–7 may also work. In order for the substrate to have such acidity indicators, a little dolomite or bone meal can be added to it.
- Planting the trachelium. If the plants are planted in open soil, then the best period will be the end of May or the beginning of June in the middle lane, since the seedlings will not withstand the effects of return frosts. When planting, either in the ground or in a pot, an important aspect is the presence of a good drainage layer, which will protect the root system from waterlogging. Such material can be a fine fraction of expanded clay or crushed stone, pebbles or pieces of broken brick. The height of the layer should reach 3-5 cm. This will also prevent you from worrying that sudden or prolonged rain will water the soil in a pot or flower bed. If you forget about drainage, waterlogging of the soil will lead to waterlogging of the substrate and provoke root rot, from which tracheliums suffer so much. When planting seedlings on a flower bed, about 30–35 cm should be left between the holes, since over time the plants grow strongly. The hole in depth should only slightly exceed the earthen lump surrounding the root system of the seedling. After the seedling is placed in the planting hole (in a pot or in the open field), all the voids around are filled with prepared soil mixture, which is carefully squeezed from above. After this, abundant watering and shading is recommended until the plant fully adapts.
- Watering when caring for a trachelium is the most serious aspect of cultivation. It is important to properly moisturize the substrate and spray the crown of the bush. It is better to water with settled warm water so that it is not hard. It is recommended to defend after a couple of days. The plantings of trachelium should be watered abundantly only when the weather is dry or the flowering process has begun.
- Fertilizers when growing trachelium, it is recommended to apply when the plant has begun the active phase of the growing season. The mode of top dressing before flowering is once a month, and during the flowering period, once every two weeks. The best means will be fertilizers for flowering plants. Among these drugs are Agricola, Master, Activin and Biopon. Before use, dilute the product with water in a 1: 1 ratio. Some gardeners use ammonium nitrate by dissolving 1 tablespoon of the product in 10 liters of water. When a decade has passed after this feeding, superphosphate should be added at the rate of 25 grams per 10 liters of water. During the wintering period, when the trachelium is at rest, it should not be disturbed with top dressing.
- Wintering when growing trachelium, it is possible only in the southern regions, where the winter period is characterized by mildness. Even the slightest frost will destroy the roots of the plant, while, even covering the bushes, it is not possible to preserve them. If you do not want to lose such a flowering shrub, with the arrival of a cold snap, you should dig it up and transplant it into a pot to keep it indoors until spring. It is during this period that a state of rest begins in the trachelium, in which the heat indicators should be within 5-10 degrees, and watering is performed poorly, only maintaining the soil in a slightly moist state. With the arrival of spring, transplantation to the flowerbed is carried out again. During any operations with the trachelium, use gloves that will protect the skin. If you neglect this rule, then you can suffer from dermatitis.
- General advice on care. Although the plant is mainly grown outdoors, it is noted that the trachelium copes well with heat and slight drops in temperature. It is not worth covering it if the thermometer has not dropped to the 5 heat mark. It is important when growing in the garden to carry out timely watering and weeding from weeds. It is also worth remembering that the bushes tend to grow over time, they will have to be divided and young shoots planted. After each watering or rain, it is recommended to loosen the soil in the root zone and blurt out the weeds. If the trachelium was purchased from a flower shop or market, then it is recommended to place the plant in "quarantine" - away from other home or garden "green inhabitants". After that, you need to process the purchased copy from fungal diseases and bacteria by treating it with fungicides (for example, Fundazol). As a prophylaxis against pests, after a couple of days, spraying with insecticides (such as Aktara and Aktellik) is performed. Only after the purchased bush has been in "quarantine" for a week, it can be placed with home flowers or planted in the garden, if time permits. When growing a trachelium in a pot, it is important to take the "pet" out into the open air with the arrival of summer, since the plant cannot do without the influx of fresh air currents. Such a place can be a terrace or balcony, a gazebo or a garden, but with the provision of diffused lighting. So that the decorativeness of the trachelium does not fall for a longer time, it is recommended to periodically remove wilted leaves that have acquired a yellow or brown color scheme. All inflorescences in which the flowers have withered should also be cut off.
- The use of trachelium in landscape design. This plant with colorful caps-inflorescences looks great in flower beds and in front gardens, gardens and rock gardens, rabatki and rockeries among stones. It can be grown in rooms and greenhouse conditions for cutting. If you use varieties with different colors of flowers, there is the possibility of organizing decorative flower patterns along the garden paths. Plants with tall stems are also suitable for the formation of hedges. When planting tracheliums in garden containers, these bushes are suitable for decorating terraces and rooms or gazebos. For a long time, this plant has been used in floristry, in drawing up colorful compositions. Their inflorescences will add splendor to the bouquet and increase its attractiveness. In order for such a bouquet to be possible to admire for a longer time, those inflorescences in which no more than 1/3 of the buds have opened at the moment should be cut off. If a bouquet of trachelium is purchased, then it is recommended to remove all the foliage from the stems, and also to cut the stems daily. After that, it would be good to put such bouquets in a solution saturated with nutrients for several hours. Also, the bouquet will last longer if it is periodically sprayed with water from a fine spray bottle.
Read also about planting and caring for Platicodon outdoors.
Trachelium breeding rules
In order to grow such a representative of the flora with fluffy inflorescences-caps on your personal plot, sowing seeds or dividing an overgrown bush is carried out.
Propagation of trachelium using seeds
To get young plants, it is recommended to grow seedlings. For this, sowing must be performed in the last days of February or with the arrival of March. If the cultivation will be carried out in the southern regions, where the soil warms up sooner, then the seeds can be sown directly on the prepared place in the garden. To grow seedlings, it is necessary to fill shallow seedling boxes with a nutritious light substrate (for example, peat-sandy) and sow. The seeds are slightly pressed into the substrate and sprinkled on top with a thin layer of the same soil. After that, watering is carried out, here you can use a fine spray gun so as not to accidentally wash the seeds. The planting containers are covered on top with a piece of glass or transparent plastic wrap.
Seedlings of trachelium should be grown if the climate is temperate, because in such areas, if sowing is carried out on a flower bed, then it is unrealistic to wait for flowering this year.
Crop maintenance will consist of watering the soil when it begins to dry out from above and regular airing. The temperature for seedlings is set within 15-18 degrees. After about two weeks from sowing the seeds of the trachelium, the first shoots can be seen. Then the shelter can be removed. Seedlings are grown at a temperature of about 20 degrees and good lighting (so that the plants do not stretch). After the third true leaf unfolds on the trachelium seedlings, it is recommended to pinch the top to stimulate branching.
When the soil warms up well enough (up to about 15-18 degrees), and this time can fall on the end of May or the beginning of summer, transplant seedlings to a flower bed in open ground.
Reproduction of the trachelium by dividing the bush
This operation can be carried out as in the spring, when transplanting at home or when grown in the open field. When the bush becomes old enough (about three years old), it forms shoots that have their own roots. They can be separated from the parent specimen and planted in a prepared place in the garden or in a pot for growing indoors. Before planting, it is recommended to generously sprinkle all sections with crushed charcoal for disinfection.
This method is convenient in that young delenki are rooting rather quickly and already begin to delight with flowering in the same year. However, it should be noted that such reproduction is possible only when trachelium is cultivated in the southern regions or in rooms, since in conditions where temperature indicators in winter fall below zero, the plant will not survive. It is usually grown as an annual and does not have time to build up a sufficiently developed root system to the cold.
Recommendations for the control of diseases and pests when growing trachelium in the garden
This plant is very delicate and, when grown in a personal plot, as well as in indoor conditions, can be affected by diseases provoked by fungal infections. But the disease starts when the trachelium is kept in a high humidity environment. Therefore, when planting (especially in regions located north of the Voronezh region), it is recommended to plant these bushes only in areas well-lit by the sun's rays, so that the soil dries out faster.
If a bloom of grayish or whitish color, mottling or spotting of a black tone is seen on the foliage or stems of the trachelium, then these are signs of fungal diseases (such as gray rot, powdery mildew, anthracnose or rust and fusarium). In this case, it is recommended to first remove all damaged parts of the plant and carry out immediate treatment with fungicidal preparations, such as Fundazol, Skor or Bordeaux liquid.
The most common disease affecting the planting of tracheliums is root rot, in which foliage is discarded. Its symptoms are darkening in the root zone of the stems, the leaves droop, as if the plant had not been watered for a long time. If you continue to moisten, and the problem is not recognized in time, this will lead to the death of the bushes. A survey of the soil and root system is recommended. If the root processes have turned black and a slimy plaque has appeared on their surface, then urgent treatment with fungicides is needed, among which Topaz, Alirin-B and the already mentioned funds are distinguished.
In order to avoid waterlogging of the soil when growing trachelim, it is recommended to lay a good layer of drainage material in the hole when planting. As a preventive action against the above diseases, pre-planting seed material is performed. In this case, the seeds should be treated with such contact fungicides as "Maxim" in order to protect the crops in the future from the penetration of pathogenic bacteria and fungi.
It is clear that watering is not carried out in a rainy summer, but in order to maintain the trachelium with such a natural high humidity, you can purchase the drug "HB-101", which serves as a growth stimulator, moreover, it contains a set of nutrients and periodically spray plantings with it.
It happens that the trachelium becomes a victim of a pest attack, among which there are:
- Spider mite well defined due to the appearance of a whitish cobweb on foliage and stems, while the deciduous mass turns yellow and flies around, and there is also a sticky bloom, which is an insect waste product (pad). To destroy the pest, it is recommended to treat the plant with insecticides such as Vermitic, Karbofos or Aktelik.
- Aphids, sucking nourishing juices from the leaves. This pest is small-sized bugs of green or black color. The leaves also turn yellow, and when the insect colony grows, the plant may even die. The best remedy to help remove these insects is Biotlin or Aktara. Moreover, it is necessary to fight aphids on the trachelium immediately after its detection, since the bugs can also carry viral diseases that cannot be treated at all, and therefore all plants will have to be destroyed.
It is recommended to repeat the treatment against harmful insects after 7-10 days in order to destroy them completely, since new individuals will appear, hatching from the remaining clutches of pests eggs.
Of the difficulties that occur when growing trachelium, the following can be distinguished:
- Sunburns in young plants. To do this, plantings should be placed under a canopy or covered with agrofibre (like lutrasil or spunbond).
- The slow growth of the plant becomes the result of insufficient nutrition, then it is required to introduce complex mineral complexes for flowering plants. Also, a decrease in the growth rate can occur in indoor growing, the tightness of the planting capacity - a trachelium transplant is recommended.
- The leaves take on a pale color, the shoots are stretched and look unaesthetic, the flowering is very short. All this can occur due to a lack of lighting in the bush.
- The leaf plates of the trachelium become lethargic and turn yellow, their ends twist from an insufficient amount of soil moisture.
Interesting notes about the trachelium flower
If you prepare tinctures or decoctions on the basis of a plant, but for a long time such drugs have been used to treat problems that arise in the throat area. Although in the 19th century, when many things, and especially emotions and feelings, people explained to each other with the help of different colors, trachelium was grown as an ornamental plant and was actively used in cutting. If a young man gave a girl a bouquet of flowers from this representative of the flora, this meant not only his special attitude, but he appreciated and extolled all her virtues. Today this flower, although a little forgotten, is regaining fame in the circles of flora lovers.
Types and varieties of trachelium
Trachelium blue (Trachelium caeruleum)
or it is also called Trachelium Blue … Natural growth occurs in the Mediterranean lands. It is this species that is most often grown in mid-latitudes. The height of the stems is 35-50 cm, but occasionally some specimens reach the mark of 75 cm. The shoots have a brownish tint. The entire deciduous mass is distributed evenly along the entire length of the stems. The length of the leaves is on average about 8 cm. The color is a rich dark green color, the surface of the foliage is glossy.
The tops of the shoots of blue trachelium at the end of summer are densely covered with inflorescences. Despite the fact that the specific name "caeruleum" is translated as "blue", but flowers can have different shades and colors besides the indicated one. They are composed of small flowers and have a corymbose shape. Such shields are about 7-15 cm across. You can enjoy flowering and thick aroma almost until frost. As pollination progresses, fruits are formed in the form of capsules filled with many small black seeds.
Trachelium blue is actively used in breeding new varieties and hybrids. Among the most popular are the following:
- Jemmy has the peculiarity of the formation of a densely branched dense shrub, the stems of which are characterized by a small number of leaves. At the top of the shoots, inflorescences are formed in the form of umbrellas. They are made up of small flowers, the petals of which are painted in white or pale pink, lilac or purple colors.
- White Umbrella or White umbrella, is a shrub with rather high stems, the height of which reaches 80 cm. Umbrella inflorescences of snow-white flowers are formed on their tops.
- Blue Veil or Blue veil, the stems of which have dense branching and a height of about 0.6 m, and as the name implies, the color of the petal in the flowers that make up the apical inflorescences is of a pale violet hue.
- Hamer Pandora - a variety that attracts attention with inflorescences of bright purple flowers.
- Queen Anne's Lace or Queen Anne's Lace, the bush is decorated with inflorescences of Lovandian blue flowers.
- Perennial Blue Lace Flower or Perennial blue lace will delight with flowering, in which caps-inflorescences of a pale purple hue are formed, but very fluffy.
- White Lake Michigan or White Lake Michigan, is a variety that is mainly grown indoors by true fans of this plant, while the color of the inflorescences is snow-white.
- Blue Shine or Blue Glitter, despite its name, pleases the eye with the iridescent-variegated color of the inflorescences. You can also grow on a windowsill.
- Briba Green characterized by green inflorescences, can be cultivated in rooms.
Jacquin's trachelium (Trachelium jacquinii)
is a perennial plant, the stems of which are lignified at the base. Recommended plant for growing in rock gardens to fill the space between stones. The height of the shoots varies within 10–20 cm, that is, the bush is characterized by dwarf parameters. At the same time, the diameter of the bush does not exceed 20 cm. The leaf plates are no more than 7.5 cm long. The color of the deciduous mass is dark emerald. The shape of the leaves is ovoid, the apex is pointed, the edge is serrate.
At the tops of the stems of Jacquin's trachelium, the formation of rather dense rounded capitate or loose inflorescences occurs, the diameter of which does not exceed 10 cm. The inflorescences are composed of flowers of bluish-lilac or gentle blue color. The length of the flowers exceeds the size of other species - about 1 cm. The flowering process takes the period from July to the end of summer.
(Trachelium asperuloides) has a shrub shape, stems with very strong branching. The size of the bushes is medium, so its outline looks like a bump. Throughout the entire branch, leaf plates with oval or ovoid contours unfold. At the very tops of the branches, cushion inflorescences flaunt in the summer. Its diameter varies in the range of 10-15 cm. On some freestanding umbrellas they can reach twice the size.
or Passion, also has a compact size, so it is recommended to use it as an ampelous or room culture. Its shoots are characterized by increased branching. In the lower part, they are densely covered with leaf plates. Leaves are broad outlines. At the top of the stems, compacted umbellate inflorescences are formed at the end of summer.
Based on this species, the following hybrid forms were derived, the names of which reflected the color of the flowers that form the inflorescences:
- Purple Veil or Purple veil with crimson color of petals in flowers.
- Pink Cream or Pink cream, having a color of flowers in pale pink or soft beige.
- Blue haze or Blue haze the petals in the flowers of the trachelum cultivar of arable land are painted in a pale blue shade.
- Cherry Fog or Cherry mist, in this variety, the inflorescences have a dark red tone.
- Ultraviolet (Ultraviolet) flowers are characterized by a correspondingly rich deep purple tint.
- White Veil or White Veil, the bush is decorated with snow-white inflorescences.
Related article: Tips for choosing lobelia, planting and care in open ground.