Characteristics of the bidense plant, advice on planting and growing a feruloliferous succession in a personal plot, methods of reproduction, possible difficulties in care, species and varieties.
The sequence (Bidens) is often found under a name similar to its transliteration in Latin - Bidense. According to the classification of plants, this representative of the flora is attributed to the extensive and diverse family of Asteraceae, often referred to as Compositae. Judging by the information provided by The Plant List database, the genus contains approximately 249 species. The native lands for bidense are the Mexican expanses and the territory of Guatemala. This explains the streak's love of sunlight and intolerance to low temperatures and drought.
|Family name||Astral or Compositae|
|Breeds||Seeds or cuttings|
|Open ground transplant terms||In the end of May|
|Landing rules||Leave 30 cm between seedlings|
|Priming||Lightweight, drained, fertile|
|Soil acidity values, pH||6, 5-7 (neutral)|
|Illumination level||High, south, southeast or southwest location|
|Humidity level||Drought tolerant|
|Special care rules||Pruning|
|Height options||Up to 0.8-0.9 m|
|Type of inflorescences or flowers||Single flowers or common inflorescences|
|Color of flowers||White or all shades of yellow|
|Fruit type||Seed capsule|
|The timing of fruit ripening||Late summer or September|
|Decorative period||From mid-summer until the first frost|
|Application in landscape design||Group planting in flower beds and flower beds, border decoration|
The origin of the name in Russian has not been established for certain, but in Latin the term "bidens" was obtained by combining a pair of words "bi" and "dens", which translate as "two" and "tooth" or "tooth", respectively. This, in fact, gives the characteristics of the fruits of the plant, since they contain a pair (and in some species, two) processes that resemble awn. But among the people you can hear the following names - decorative or feruloliferous succession, and this representative of the flora should not be counted among the medicinal ones. Often there is a nickname "flower of the sun" for the brightly colored petals of the plant.
All types of bidense are annuals, with a herbaceous form of growth. They are characterized by straight stems with branching starting from the base. Shoots reach a height of 0.8–0.9 m, while the diameter of such bushes varies within 30–80 cm. The color of the stems is green, they grow not too strong, creeping along the soil surface. On them, in opposite order, whole sheet plates with 3-5 separations or they are dissected. The foliage runs along the entire length of the stem, while forming a dense crown in the form of a ball. The edge of the leaf lobes is acicular. The outlines of the leaves in this are somewhat reminiscent of fennel. The deciduous mass is painted in a rich dark green or gray color.
During flowering, which in bidense occurs from mid-summer to October, basket-shaped inflorescences form on the tops of the stems or lateral processes. The number of baskets is large, they cover the entire surface of the decorative bush. Inflorescences can be located singly or collected in common inflorescences. The wrapper in the baskets can take on a hemispherical or bell-shaped shape. The outer leaves in the inflorescences are herbaceous, the inner leaves are in the form of films. The receptacle is also filmy.
The marginal flowers of the bidense are asexual, the reed flowers are characterized by a yellow color or they do not exist at all. In the central part, the flowers are tubular. Each of the buds has 4 pairs of petals, colored white or various shades of yellow. The core of the flower is dense and lush, it is covered with multiple stamens. One ovary is also present there. The diameter of the flower at full disclosure reaches 2–3 cm. During flowering, the feruloliferous series fills everything around with a strong and pleasant aroma, due to which not only butterflies, but also other natural pollinators fly to the site.
After pollination in the bidense, the achenes (capsules) with a flattened or triangular shape, having 1–2 pairs of bristles, mature. When fully ripe, the capsules open, exposing the seed material, which attaches with its serrated bristles to animal hair or bird feathers, clothing or human shoes, which contributes to a fairly wide natural distribution of the plant.
The decorative sequence of the plant is unpretentious, but because of the bright and long flowering, it won the love of gardeners and landscape designers. Even a novice florist can cope with the cultivation of this representative of Compositae, you should only adhere to the rules below.
Tips for planting and caring for your bidense
- Landing place bidense is selected well-lit, since in nature the plant prefers a lot of sunlight and heat. If you plant in shade, then the stems of the decorative string begin to stretch and build up the deciduous mass, and the flowering will not be so abundant. Avoid planting in lowlands or where groundwater is nearby.
- Priming for a feruloliferous succession, a light, but at the same time fertile, plant is selected, but at the same time the plant feels good on loam. It is important that moisture does not stagnate in the soil after precipitation; this will require the use of drainage material during planting. It can be coarse-grained river sand, brick chips or other components of the same fraction (expanded clay or pebbles). If the soil on the site where the biden is planned to grow is heavy, then river sand and peat chips are added to it. When cultivating in pots, the best soil mixture will be the combined garden soil, river sand and humus in a ratio of 1: 1: 0, 5. Also, when planting in a container, it is recommended to lay a sufficient drainage layer (3-5 cm) on the bottom so that the root system does not become waterlogged. plants.
- Landing bidense in open ground should be carried out no earlier than the second half of May, when the return frosts have already passed. The distance between the seedlings is left at least 30 cm. If this rule is violated, then the shoots will become deformed during growth, and there will also be no room for the growth of the root system. After the decorative sequence is installed in the planting hole, the soil around the seedling is poured to the level of the soil at the site (the root collar of the plant should remain at the same level without additional deepening), slightly compacted and watering is performed. When transplanting to a flower bed, you should choose a cloudy day, or if the day is clear, then evening hours will do. This will ensure that the seedlings of the feruloliferous series will not wither in direct sunlight.
- Watering - this is something that you do not have to worry about when caring for a biden, since the plant is characterized by increased resistance to drought. Only if there is dry and hot weather for a long time, then it is recommended to moisten the soil next to such plantings. Moistening the soil should be timely, as its surface dries up. After watering, the soil should be mulched so that such a layer does not allow rapid evaporation of moisture. Compost or peat crumb acts as mulch.
- Fertilizers when growing bidense outdoors, it must be applied 1-2 times a month in order to stimulate the formation of a large number of buds. For this, complex mineral preparations are used, which contain potassium and phosphorus. Such dressings are applied before the flowering of the decorative series. To prevent the soil from drying out so much next to the bushes, after planting and throughout the growing season, it is mulched with a layer of compost. The top layer of soil is dug up with organic matter. Fertilizers are best applied with watering, once every two weeks.
- Pruning for the feruloliferous succession, it is carried out to form beautiful spherical outlines of the bush. This operation is easily tolerated by bidense. At the same time, it is recommended to remove too long lateral stems, which after two weeks will be replaced by young shoots, and the formation of peduncles will occur. Forming bidense bushes must be done before the formation of peduncles on them, otherwise the number of flowers will be greatly reduced.
- General advice on care. In order for the weed not to harm, it is recommended to periodically weed the bushes of the decorative sequence. All wild growth must be removed. When the buds of the bidense wither, they are cut to stimulate the appearance of new ones. But, in general, this representative of the flora is definitely intended for lazy flower growers who, having planted, forget to take care of their "green pets". They also combine weeding with loosening the soil next to the bushes.
- The use of bidense in landscape design. It is thanks to its long flowering and bright color of inflorescences that the feruloliferous succession has won the love of flower growers and landscape designers. Since the bushes have compact and spherical outlines, it is also customary to use them as an ampelous culture, planting plants in flowerpots, boxes on balconies or in pots. Since these representatives of the flora easily tolerate direct sunlight, drafts and drought, they will serve as a decoration for balconies and gazebos, delighting with flowering, both households and passers-by. Again, the compact shape of the biden and its pliability when shaping the crown favor the use of this plant for the formation of curbs. Such plants will also look good on a well-groomed lawn. Also, any flower garden or flower bed will only benefit from planting a decorative series on them.
If you plant the bidense in a pot and keep it in a greenhouse environment in a cold greenhouse or on a glazed balcony, you can achieve a two-year flowering, since the growing season continues even at 5 degrees Celsius.
Read also about caring for butterbur in the open field
Bidense breeding methods
To grow a decorative series on your site, you should use seed or vegetative methods. The latter is the rooting of cuttings.
Propagation of bidense using seeds
Next year, next to the plantings of the ferul-leaved sequence, you can see many young seedlings, since the plant is characterized by the property of self-seeding. Then there are no problems with reproduction, but if there are no plans to get rid of these plantings, then it is recommended to stock up on at least a small amount of seed material. This is because if the weather conditions are unfavorable, then most of the young seedlings will simply die and the gardener will have to look for seedlings in order to restore the biden bushes.
Collecting seeds is carried out in the autumn at the end of flowering. All inflorescences that have withered are cut and dried. Then the seeds are extracted from them and stored in paper bags until spring. If the cultivation of a decorative string is planned in the northern regions, then the best solution would be to grow seedlings, but in a temperate climatic zone, sowing can be carried out directly into open ground.
When growing seedlings of bidense, a seedling box is used, into which a loose, light and nutritious soil is poured (peat-sandy soil can be used). The soil mixture should be moistened with warm water and sowed in the first week of March. The depth of seed placement is 1–1, 5 cm. The crops are sprinkled on top with a layer of the same soil. After that, the seedling container should be wrapped in plastic transparent film or a piece of glass should be placed on top. This will guarantee the provision of greenhouse conditions - high humidity and room temperature. Also, the shelter will not allow the soil to dry out. Crop care involves spraying the soil with warm water from a spray bottle and regular ventilation so that the seeds do not rot.
Usually, after two weeks, you can see the friendly shoots of bidense. The shelter is then already removed, the container with the seedlings is moved to a well-lit windowsill, but it is important to provide shelter from direct sunlight at noon. Watering is carried out when the soil surface begins to dry out, but moisture should be moderate. It is important not to allow it to become waterlogged so that the seedlings are not struck by the fungal disease "black leg".
When the return frosts recede (from about mid-May), you can transplant the seedlings of the feruloliferous succession to the flower bed. But before that, hardening of the seedlings should be performed. To do this, a box with plants is taken out into the open air for 10-15 minutes at first, gradually increasing the time until the seedlings are outside around the clock. So that young bidenses do not interfere with each other during growth, they should be placed at least 30 cm.
When growing from seeds of plants of a decorative series immediately in a flower bed, when young shoots appear, they will need moderate watering, top dressing and periodic weeding.
Propagation of bidense by cuttings
This method is used when it is required to preserve the varietal properties of the specimen, since when plants are grown from seeds, they can lose the characteristics of the mother bushes. However, this method requires some skill, and it will take some effort from the grower. The parent bush of the feruloliferous succession must be transplanted into a pot in the fall and kept indoors in the winter, while ensuring the temperature indicators are not lower than 5 degrees Celsius.
At the end of February, cuttings are cut from the shoots and planted in separate pots with peat-sandy soil. The length of the workpieces should be about 10 cm. For successful rooting, the cut can be treated with any root stimulator (for example, Kornevin). A glass or plastic container is placed on top of the cuttings to create the conditions for a mini-greenhouse. Pots of biden cuttings are placed in a well-lit area and grown until they develop root shoots. In the spring, when the frosts recede (May-June), you can transplant seedlings into open ground.
Bidense: Difficulty in outdoor herb care
Ferulleaf succession is a particularly resistant plant and does not suffer from attacks of harmful insects. Also, it is not affected by the numerous diseases inherent in the garden representatives of the flora. The only problem can be the wrong landing site. In the shade, the stems will stretch strongly, the size of the flowers will become smaller and their number will decrease. Also, in such locations, from prolonged rains, the root system of the flower may begin to rot.
Read also about the probable difficulties in garden cultivation of navel
Interesting notes about the flower biden
Nodding beggarticks or Bidens cernua and Hairy beggarticks or Bidens pilosa are useful as honey plants. Several species of the ornamental string are used as food by the caterpillars of some Lepidoptera, such as the Hypercompe hambletoni butterfly moth and the Vanessa cardui painted lady. Bidens spotted infection virus, a plant pathogen, was first isolated from a plant of the species Bidens pilosa, which infects many other Asteraceae, as well as representatives of other families.
Types and varieties of a series of ferulele leaf
Since the plant is quite rare in our gardens, it is quite difficult to find its varieties. Here are just a few of them:
The plant was bred in Europe, prefers in nature ditches, the shores of lakes and streams, swamps, wet forests, roadsides, railways, fields, wastelands. Grows to 10–1000 m in height. Annual, shoots reach a height of (15-) 30-50 (-150) cm. Leaves: petioles 10-50 mm; blades ± generally delta-ovoid, with parameters 50-100 (-150) x (15-) 30-80 (-120) mm. Primary lobes or leaflets ± lanceolate with indicators of 20–80 (-120) x 10–25 (-40) mm. The edge of the leaf lobes is serrated, the tops are sharp.
Bidense Vulgate blooms from August to September (October). Inflorescences are arranged singly or in 2 or 3 in open corymbose common inflorescences. Peduncles (10-) 40–150 mm long. There are 10-16 (-21) bracts imitating the calyx, they grow ascending with a spatulate or linear shape. Bracts in the form of a hemisphere or wider, 5-6x8-10 mm. There are 10–12 reduced petals under the flower head, they are ovate-lanceolate, 6–9 mm long. Brown petals 0 or 3-5 pieces; the plates are pale yellow, reaching a length of 2, 5–3, 5 mm. There are 40-60 (-150) disc inflorescences; corollas yellow, 2, 5–3, 5 mm long.
The seeds of bidense vulgata are purple, brown, olive or stratified, with more or less flattening, obovate, conical. The outer ones are 6-10 mm long, the inner ones are 8-12 mm long, the tops are truncated. Bristle teeth are present.
Similar to the Mexican territory, grows at altitudes of 0-300 m above sea level, preferring calm and stagnant waters. Perennials (possibly flowering of the first year), stems up to 200 cm long (aquatic species). Leaves are sessile; multi-leaved, submerged blades in water, end blades threadlike, mainly with a diameter of 0, 1–0, 3 mm. The air lobes are ovoid or lanceolate. The leaf lobes are 10–45 x 5–20 mm in size, the bases are wedge-shaped, the edges are incised to dentate or whole, not ciliate, the tops are obtuse.
Bidense becky blooms from July to September. The heads usually grow one at a time. Peduncles (10) 20–100 mm high. Sepals 5-6 pieces, they usually take the form from oblong to ovate, their length is 5-8 mm, the edges are intact, not ciliate, usually glabrous. Bracts are grouped in the hemisphere, 7–12 x 12–15 mm in size. Edge flowers 8 pieces; plates yellow, 10–15 mm long. Disc flowers 10-30 pieces; corollas are pale yellow, 5–6 mm long. Seed capsules (external and internal are approximately the same). Colored from yellowish to greenish-brown, almost quadrangular or slightly quadrangular, more or less linear, 10-15 mm long. Seeds have neither serrated nor ciliated margins, truncated apices, smooth or striped edges, glabrous.
Biden bigelovii (Bidens bigelovii)
It resembles from the territory of Mexico, spreads along streams and other humid places at an altitude of 900–2000 m. Annual, reaches a height of (10–) 20–80 cm. Leaves: petioles 5–25 mm long; the plates are generally rounded-dissected, their dimensions are 25–90 x 15–35 mm. The terminal lobes are lanceolate-rhombic or ovate-lanceolate, with parameters 15-30x5-15 mm, the bases are truncated to a cone, the terminal edges are completely or ± dentate to incisions, the tops are obtuse to pointed, the edges are bare.
Bidense bigelia bloom in September. Baskets usually stand alone, sometimes in open, corymbose common inflorescences. Peduncles are 30-50 (-150) mm long. Bracts of 8–13 pieces, as a rule, spreading, narrow-lanceolate, 2–5 mm long, edges are full, usually ciliate, abaxial edges are usually glabrous. Edge petals 0 or 1 (5) pieces; their color is whitish, length 1–3 (7) mm. Disc flowers 13–25 pieces; corollas yellowish, 1–2 mm. Achenes: outer red-brown, compressed, wedge-shaped, 6–7 mm, edges not ciliate, truncated apices, grooved surface; internal from dark brown to blackish, linear-fusiform, 10–14 mm long, edges not ciliate, pointed awns (1–) 2–4 mm are present.
Lemon biden (Bidens lemmonii)
It resembles from the territory of Mexico, preferring wet places on rocky slopes; at an altitude of 1400–2100 m above sea level. Annual, with a stem height of 15–25 (30) cm. Leaves: petioles 10–20 mm long. Their shape is convex or linear, with a size of 5-15x1-2 mm, or they are round-deltoid. The terminal lobes are oblate or scapular, parameters 5-15x0, 5-5 mm, the bases are wedge-shaped, the terminal edges are complete, sometimes ciliary, the apex is obtuse, sharp, the surface is bare.
Basket inflorescences usually grow singly, sometimes in open, corymbose common inflorescences. Peduncles 10–20 (90) mm high. Bracts (3) 5 pieces, oblong, lanceolate or linear, 3–8 mm long. There are no marginal flowers or 1–3 of them grow; their color is whitish, length 1–1, 5 (3) mm. Tubular flowers on an inflorescence disc near lemon biden (3) 5–9 pieces; their color varies from whitish to yellowish, their length is 2–2.5 mm. Blooms from September to October. Fruits: outer red-brown (sometimes with lighter spots), rectangular, linear-fusiform, 5–8 mm long, edges not ciliate, obtuse apices.
The brightest varieties of bidense that are popular with flower growers are:
- White is a bush with voluminous outlines and flowers with a snow-white color.
- Aurea or Golden has bushes not exceeding 0.6 m in height, their shoots abundantly cover flower baskets of a golden hue.
- Golden ball or Golden ball, has a small size, so the diameter of the bush reaches half a meter. The height of the stems is 50–80 cm. The stems are distinguished by special branching. They are decorated with flowers 2–4 cm in diameter, with petals of a delicate or rich yellow color scheme.
- Goldie (Golds) the size of such bushes is average, the stems do not exceed a height of half a meter, short but wide leaves are a characteristic difference, the diameter of the baskets reaches 3 cm, the petals in them are bright yellow.
- Golden Goddess or Golden goddess the owner of the largest flowers in size, the bushes grow medium in size, the foliage is shortened.
- Taka Tuka the height of the stems is 35 cm. Basket inflorescences have lemon-yellow petals with whitish tips.
- Port Royal Double from a distance it resembles marigolds in its outlines, since it has a semi-double structure of inflorescences, the petals of which are painted in yellow color.
- Pearl White erect branched stems form an almost spherical crown with height and diameter parameters of 30–90 cm. The color of the deciduous mass is dark green. Flowers have white petals.
Related article: Growing ammobium in the open field.