The need for waterproofing basements. Types of insulating materials, their characteristics and advantages. Technologies for performing work on each of the waterproofers. Basement waterproofing is one of the most reliable ways to protect a basement from the penetration of water flows that can destroy the metal that is part of reinforced concrete structures. In addition to the function of protecting against corrosion, such works help to remove fungus and dampness from the bottom of the building.
Why do you need basement waterproofing
Protecting the room from moisture penetration is a task that must be solved when laying the foundation. During the construction of the facility, a number of measures are carried out that create obstacles to the ingress of water into the walls and floor of the basement. The highest quality waterproofing is achieved only at the time of construction. Measures taken in an already constructed room may not give the calculated result. The following types of basement waterproofing are used: anti-pressure, non-pressure, anti-capillary.
Anti-pressure waterproofing is performed in cases where water rises beyond the floor mark, and often reaches the walls of the basement. Then the work is carried out outside the building. Waterproofing inside the basement is not effective, as the water there tends to pull the material away from the wall. In addition to these measures to prevent moisture from entering the basement, it is necessary to make a drainage system around it and drain the available water into the storm system.
Non-pressure waterproofing is done when the water table is not high and the possibility of flooding is zero. Protect surfaces only from insignificant penetration of atmospheric precipitation into the soil. Here it is more expedient to cover the entire basement with bituminous mastic. Anti-capillary waterproofing is carried out in order to protect the basement walls from water penetration through capillaries. Previously, bituminous mastic was used for this or covered with sheets of roofing material. Now they use penetrating waterproofing means.
The choice of materials for waterproofing the basement
Waterproofers that are offered to the consumer are usually classified into the following groups:
- Coating … These means include mixtures based on bitumen, they are used cold and with the help of heating. This group also includes cement compositions, mixtures based on polymers, thick-walled bituminous coatings. The base of the solution is bituminous resin with the addition of synthetic rubber. It contains no solvents. It is used on various types of surfaces: brick, concrete, stone, plastered. Cement waterproofing is a composition of polymers with the addition of cement. This insulator is vapor-permeable and has high adhesion, therefore it is often used for internal waterproofing works. Considering that it contains polymers, it is flexible in use, its application does not require special knowledge, and its advantage is its affordable price. The main disadvantage of the do-it-yourself cement-based coating of the basement is the fragility of the material.
- Liquid rubber … It contains bitumen and a variety of polymers. Its key property is the ability to firmly bond the insulator with the molecules of the treated surface. Liquid rubber is a material that has many positive properties, such as durability, inability to be exposed to microorganisms, temperature extremes, and ultraviolet rays. It is resistant to water pressure, has good adhesion, fire safety, low price and high maintainability.
- Liquid glass … It has the same properties as rubber: hardening, it protects the treated surface from moisture. The main components of the material: sodium silicate with the addition of sand and soda. Available in liquid or dry form, diluted with water and used for basement waterproofing. Differs in high adhesive qualities, corrosion resistance, no need to use special equipment. The disadvantages of the insulator include the inability to use on any type of surfaces.
- Roll … The industry offers a large selection of roll insulators, which include bitumen and polymers. The main materials of this group are roofing felt and roofing felt; glass roofing material, brizol, hydroizol, folgoizol are also on sale. The basis for roll insulators is mastic, which is put in a heated form or used in a cold way, or the material is fixed by melting. Among the positive qualities of roll insulation, we will single out the relatively inexpensive cost of work and the ability to perform gluing on our own. The negative aspects that arise when waterproofing a basement is a loss of quality at low temperatures, the ability to be exposed to microorganisms and mechanical damage.
- Penetrating … The point lies in the reciprocal reaction of the material and the processed plane. The waterproofing agent applied to the surface is absorbed through the capillaries to a depth of 0.4 mm and crystallizes. This process is possible only due to the action of penetrates - special components that are part of the insulator. Therefore, materials for penetrating waterproofing are called Penetron. Silica or aluminum oxide is added to the composition of the substance to impart penetrating properties. The use of Penetron as an insulator is associated with its penetration into the pores of concrete, while waterproof crystals are formed. The mixtures used as penetrating insulation have the following positive qualities: the ability to penetrate to a depth of more than 0.5 mm, which makes it possible to improve the waterproofing of concrete, close any microcracks, and are characterized by a long service life. The treated surfaces are resistant to low temperatures, and the material is easy to use.
- Injection … This waterproofing has excellent penetrating properties. The flowable gel is injected into the holes prepared in advance for this purpose. The product can be used even in damp rooms, and the surfaces are not subject to special preparation. Injections allow you to penetrate into any hard-to-reach places, plus a small investment is required.
Note! Working with injection isolation wards requires certain practical skills and training, unlike other materials.
Basement waterproofing technology
The sequence of work is different depending on what kind of material for waterproofing the basement is chosen.
Application of coating waterproofing
For waterproofing coating materials include cement coating, rubber mastic, liquid rubber and liquid glass. Consider the application technology for each insulator.
Before starting to apply the cement waterproofing coating, the following tools must be prepared: a working bucket, a brush, a roller or a spatula (it all depends on the consistency of the solution). Materials that will be needed for work: flexible cement paste, water.
The instructions for carrying out the work will be reduced to the following actions:
- All treated surfaces are cleaned from old cement, all kinds of irregularities.
- Regardless of the material (mastic or cement coating), the area is abundantly wetted with water. On a damp surface, the insulator fits better and goes deeper into the pores.
- When applying a cement coating, the dry mixture is diluted with water. The solution must be well moistened, otherwise it will not adhere well to the surface.
- The mixture is applied with a brush, roller or spatula, it depends on the consistency.
- After the surface has dried, it is subjected to final processing.
The use of mastic implies its application outside the building in order to protect it from water ingress. Before applying it, you must prepare the following tools: a brush or roller (depending on the consistency of the mastic), a spatula, a working bucket.
The algorithm for carrying out work with rubber mastic is as follows:
- The surface to be treated must be cleaned of old cement, dirt and debris.
- The surface is well moistened with water, this enables the material to better penetrate the concrete structure.
- The mastic is mixed and applied to the walls.
- When the surface is dry, you can plaster it.
When the mastic dries, an elastic film forms on the walls. Such material does not allow water to pass through, does not react to temperature changes, and closes potholes and flaws on the treated surface. Liquid rubber
To work with it, you will need the following tools: a roller or a special installation. Materials used for applying liquid rubber: antiseptic primer, insulator, special fabric.
The technology boils down to the following works:
- Basement walls are cleaned of dust, dirt and existing fungi. If there are irregularities on the surface, they must be putty, as an excess amount of material will be used.
- A primer is applied to the basement wall, which performs an antiseptic function and promotes better bonding of the material and the base. It is thrown at all corners and crevices, then they are covered with a special cloth, this makes it possible to better seal the seams. After that, the entire wall is already primed, as a result, the seams and corners are primed twice. The solution dries out for 3-4 hours, it depends on the ambient temperature and the presence of ventilation in the basement.
- Liquid rubber is applied to the walls using a roller or a special machine that evenly distributes the insulator over the wall surface.
- After curing, a film forms on the base that protects it from moisture. Now you can carry out finishing work.
To work with it, we need the following tools: a brush or roller, a working bucket, a spatula. Materials to be used: liquid glass, water, plaster.
The technology for using liquid glass inside the basement will be as follows:
- We clean the surfaces from dirt. Large irregularities can be removed with a chisel or chisel. After that, large debris and dust are swept from the base.
- Before using the insulator, first wash and then degrease the walls.
- We apply liquid glass first to all corners, crevices, then cover the entire area to be treated.
The liquid glass solution hardens very quickly, it is recommended to prepare it in small portions. An even greater effect can be achieved if glass powder is poured into the plaster.
Installation of roll waterproofing
Tools that are required for laying such materials: brush, roller, working bucket, sharp scissors. Required materials: roll insulator, e.g. roofing felt, primer, bitumen mastic.
The technology for using roll insulators is as follows:
- The walls are cleaned of everything superfluous: dirt, debris, concrete adhesion. It is advisable to wash the surface and let it dry thoroughly.
- Then the walls are covered with an even layer of ground mortar, which dries up within a few hours. It is leveled with a roller evenly over the entire area.
- When the surface dries, bituminous mastic is applied to it. During the drying process, it forms a stable, uniform coating.
- The final stage: the roofing material is cut into strips, laid on top of the mastic with an overlap of 15 cm. This is done to isolate all the joints of the wall.
Penetrating waterproofing application
Tools used in the work: wide roller or brush, bucket, metal brush. Materials for work: Penetron dry insulating mixture, water.
The technology of application is reduced to the following algorithm of actions:
- The surface to be treated is prepared, cleaned with a metal brush.
- Then it is abundantly wetted with water, this is necessary so that the pores of the concrete open well, and the insulating mixture gets as deep as possible.
- Next, a solution is prepared: the dry insulating mixture is combined with water.
- First, all corners, joints are processed, then the rest of the surface is covered. The walls are treated with mortar several times. Moreover, at least 2 hours should pass between the application of the first and each subsequent layer.
- The treated surface must be watered with water for several days, this is done in order to uniformly harden the material.
Application of injection waterproofing
Tools used in the work: injection pump, packers, perforator. Materials for work: mixture for waterproofing.
The algorithm for performing injection isolation will be as follows:
- Holes are prepared using a hammer drill equipped with a heavy-duty drill. It is necessary to make a lot of holes - they are drilled at a distance of 1-2 cm from one another.
- A special device "Packer" is inserted into the hole, through which the prepared mixture is pumped under pressure using an injection pump.
- The insulating mixture should dry within 10-12 hours. It is desirable to be able to ventilate the room. After drying, the room can be used as usual.
How to make basement waterproofing - watch the video:
It is not difficult to waterproof the basement from the inside if you stock up on the necessary tools, materials and carefully follow our instructions. Thanks to them, in a few days it will be possible to dry the room and protect its surfaces from the appearance of microorganisms.