Description of the bladder plant, the rules of planting and care in the open field, how to properly reproduce, how to deal with possible diseases and pests, cognitive notes, species and varieties.
Bubbleweed (Colutea) is a shrub plant that loses its deciduous mass during the winter. Botanists include this representative of the flora in the legume family (Fabaceae), but according to some sources it is included in the Rosaceae family. The genus has approximately 25 varieties. The natural area of their distribution falls on the territory of Central and Asia Minor, which also includes the regions of Central and Eastern Europe, Transcaucasia and the Caucasus, that is, from the lands of the Mediterranean to the Western Himalayas, wherever a temperate climate prevails.
|Breeds||Seed or vegetative|
|Open ground transplant terms||Spring|
|Landing rules||Saplings are placed at a distance of 70 cm from each other|
|Priming||Well-drained, air and moisture permeable, loam|
|Soil acidity values, pH||6, 5-7 (neutral) or 7-8 (slightly alkaline)|
|Illumination level||Well-lit sunny location|
|Special care rules||Regular watering and pruning|
|Height options||Approx. 3 m|
|Flowering period||Aug. Sept|
|Type of inflorescences or flowers||Racemose inflorescences|
|Color of flowers||White, yellow or orange|
|Fruit type||Pod, bob|
|Fruit color||Greenish at first, then transparent|
|The timing of fruit ripening||October|
|Season of decorativeness||Spring-autumn|
|Application in landscape design||Decoration of gardens as a specimen or group planting, the formation of hedges|
The genus derives its name from the word in the ancient Greek language "koiloun", translated as "cavity" or "bubble". All, apparently, because of the outlines of the swollen fruits of this plant. The name in Russian means the same, since ripening fruits have the appearance of transparent bubbles.
All bladders are shrubs with original and graceful outlines. The height of the branches reaches three meters. The root system has good branching, which helps to keep the bush on the crumbling substrate, and the property is also used in horticulture to keep the soil on the slopes. Through drooping branches, a spherical crown is formed. Shoots are covered with leaves growing in regular order. The leaf plate is complex in outline, imparipinnate. The leaves reach 15 cm in length. The color in the period of spring-summer is soft or rich green, but with the arrival of autumn this color takes on a golden, red or brown tone.
When blooming in the bubble, racemose inflorescences are formed, consisting of numerous moth flowers. Inflorescences originate in the axils of the leaf plates. Usually, each inflorescence has 1-2 pairs of buds. The corolla of the flower allows you to draw an axis of symmetry through it, that is, its structure is zygomorphic. The corolla is composed of five petals, which have the following names:
- Sail (may be called a flag) is the largest of all petals. It is characterized by a more saturated color scheme, has a wider upper part - a bend and a narrowed low - a marigold.
- A pair of side lobes is referred to as oars or wings.
- A pair of lower petals, have splicing (sometimes stuck together) along the edges in the upper part are called keel (boat because of the similar shape). Inside there are stamens and gynoecium.
Flower petals are whitish, yellow or orange in color. Often the sail is distinguished by a spot of a rich, darker shade. There are a large number of stamens inside the flower. The beginning of flowering starts from the first days of summer and ends only in October.
Interesting is the ripening period of the fruit, which begins at the end of flowering in mid-autumn. The fruits are represented in the bladderworm by swollen beans or pods. Their shape is somewhat similar to a fish bubble. The color is initially pale greenish, replaced by transparency, which even more resembles a bubble. The length of such a pod is about 6 cm, there is a slight scattered pubescence on the surface. By the end of autumn, the beans fall off. The seeds that fill them are poisonous, which should be taken into account when working with a plant and choosing a place for planting it. Their germination rate is low, which makes it very difficult for them to reproduce.
The plant is rather incapable and does not require special efforts when growing, but it can become a real decoration of any personal plot. Cultivation of culture has been practiced since the 16th century and its qualities have been appreciated by gardeners since then.
Rules for growing bubble worm: planting and care in the open field
- Landing place a spectacular shrub should be selected with its natural preferences - sunny and open to ultraviolet streams from all sides. You should not plant the plant in lowlands, where moisture can accumulate or if there is nearby groundwater. This can cause root decay. It is better that there are no tall trees nearby, the crowns of which will shade Colutea. Since in nature the plant holds crumbling slopes well, it can also be planted on slopes and slopes on the site.
- Soil for bladder they pick up a poor and sandy one, but the shrub can grow on a heavy and clayey substrate. However, there are species that thrive on loose and nutritious soil when planting, but with good drainage. But most of these plants are content with depleted soil, which has a positive effect on the number of flowers and fruits. The acidity of the soil can be any, but the best is neutral or slightly alkaline pH 6, 5-7 or pH 7-8. Before planting, it is recommended to add high moor peat to the soil, which will enrich the substrate with nutrients. If the soil is too heavy, river sand is mixed into it, which will make it more permeable to air and moisture. Do not plant on a swampy or salty substrate.
- Planting a bubble wort. Planting is best done in mid-spring when the soil is warm enough. Since the bushes can serve to hold crumbling slopes, it is recommended to place them in a checkerboard pattern, at a distance of 0.7 m from each other. It is recommended to dig a hole on the talus, which resembles a pocket, put a layer of drainage on the bottom of it (expanded clay, crushed stone or broken brick), and then put compost and soil mixture there so that the thickness of its layer is about 15 cm. After that, a seedling is placed in the hole, straightened the roots and the fossa are filled to the top with the substrate. After that, you need abundant watering. It is recommended to select plants for planting with a height of about 0.5 m. To prevent the soil from drying out too quickly after watering or rain, the tree trunk circle can be mulched with peat chips or compost. After planting, for the first time, the seedlings need to provide abundant watering, but it is worth making sure that the soil is not flooded.
- Watering when caring for the bladder, it must be timely so that the soil always remains in a slightly moistened state. Drying it will have a bad effect on flowering and fruiting. Although many species are drought tolerant. Plants with normal rainfall may well be content with natural moisture. Otherwise, it is recommended to water twice a week. For this, the time is selected in the morning or evening hours so that the moisture does not evaporate so quickly. Also, if the drops remain on the leaves during watering, then a burn may occur at noon.
- Pruning when growing such an ornamental shrub, it is carried out both for sanitary purposes and to maintain the ornamental appearance of the plant. It is important after winter to start removing all frostbitten and broken shoots, as well as branches that are affected by diseases, grow deep into the crown or are very weak. The best time for sanitary pruning is mid-March. After that, you can cut off strong branches, leaving 3-4 buds at the base. The plant adapts very quickly from such manipulations and begins to recover.
- Fertilizers when caring for the bladder, it is necessary to maintain its decorative qualities, since the shoots are characterized by a high growth rate. It is important to apply top dressing twice during the growing season - in spring and autumn. At other times, it is not necessary to fertilize such shrub plantings, since in nature the plants choose rather depleted soils.
- Wintering such a plant will directly depend on the area of their cultivation. If the winters are harsh, then the best solution would be to transplant the bladder bushes into containers and keep them in greenhouses or premises during the winter months. But in milder climates, it is recommended to provide shelter for the root system.
- The use of a bubble bottle in landscape design. The plant will look good on the site, both as a tapeworm and in group plantings. With the help of such shrubs, hedges can be formed. Such plants will look beautiful in rockeries or stone gardens. The best neighbors for the bubblewort are white acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) and gleditsia (Gleditsia).
See tips for planting and caring for broom in your area.
Recommendations for breeding pemphigus
To get a new plant with exotic and colorful fruits, you can use the seed and vegetative method (jigging and grafting).
Propagation of bladderworm using seeds
Using this method, one should not forget that the seed material is characterized by a very low germination rate. Preparation is necessary before sowing. You can perform monthly stratification in the cold - put the seeds in a container and put it on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator, where the heat readings are 0-5 degrees. Or the seeds are scalded with boiling water. Then the seed is laid out on a moistened natural tissue and placed in a warm place for 1–1, 5 months. It is important to ensure that the fabric always remains wet. The germination temperature is maintained at about 22 degrees.
After that, part of the skin can be removed from the top of the seed. This manipulation must be carried out with great care so that the core is not affected. Alternatively, you can chop the peel. All this will speed up the germination of seed material. Seeds are sown in the period of April-May in seedling containers filled with sandy-peat soil, and they are moistened. Germination is carried out at a temperature of at least 20 degrees. When leaving, it is important to keep the soil in a moderately moist state. After a week, you can see the first shoots. Seedlings can be planted in open ground only with the arrival of April.
Propagation of bladderworm by jigging root shoots
Since over time a large number of young shoots are formed next to the mother plant, it can be transplanted. To do this, with the arrival of spring, a piece of the root system with shoots is cut off from the root system using a pointed shovel. It is important that the seedling has a sufficient number of roots, as this will guarantee its rooting. All cuts are well sprinkled with crushed charcoal, and the bush cut is immediately planted in a previously prepared hole.
Propagation of the vesicle by cuttings
Some gardeners carry out propagation by rooting cuttings cut from the green shoots of the shrub. This should be done in the spring. The length of the cutting should be at least 10 cm. The cuttings are planted in a peat-sandy substrate and placed under a glass or plastic bottle. In a plastic container, you can cut off the bottom, which will then simplify the operation of airing, when the lid can simply be unscrewed for a while from the neck. When the cuttings take root, and this will become clear from the developing buds, then you can transplant to a permanent place of growth. It is best to choose the time in late autumn or with the onset of a new spring.
How to deal with possible diseases and pests when growing bladderworm?
The plant is not particularly damaged by pests or diseases, but violation of the rules of agricultural technology will entail some problems. Too waterlogged soil and lack of drainage are considered such violations. These factors can cause decay of the root system and the death of the entire shrub. If the wilting of the leaves and the drooping of the shoots have begun, then the bush is dug up, the root system is examined. If there are roots damaged by rot, they are cut off, and the "wounds" are sprinkled with crushed charcoal. After that, treatment with fungicidal preparations (for example, Fungicide) is required. The plant is planted in a new place with thoroughly disinfected soil. It is important to establish an irrigation regime and prevent soil acidification.
If the summer turned out to be rainy, then there is a likelihood of damage to the bladderworm by aphids. These small green bugs suck up nutritious juices and cause the leaves to turn yellow and discard. Also, aphids are a particularly dangerous pest, as they can carry viral diseases for which there is no cure. To combat aphids, it is recommended to immediately treat the shrub with insecticidal agents (such as Aktara, Actellik or Karbofos).
When, upon examination, longitudinal cracks are noticed on the shoots, the foliage begins to fade, this is a sign of a viral disease. The affected specimen is best removed from the site and burned.
With the arrival of spring, it is also important to inspect the branches of the bladderworm. Blackening on the shoots indicates frostbite during the winter. Such branches must be pruned. If the branches are large, then the cuts are processed with a green pitch.
It is important to protect against frostbite of the root system; for this, the trunk circle should be mulched with peat, dry foliage or spruce branches.
Read also about diseases and pests that affect caesalpinia when grown in the garden
Cognitive notes about bubble wort for gardeners
Colutea arborescens has been cultivated in Great Britain since 1568, after being imported. In all likelihood, the plant was used not only for decorative, but also for medical purposes. Today, it is cultivated because of the spectacular appearance of the seed bolls (stubs), which are used as dried flowers.
Even President Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826) in Virginia had a pebble tree in the garden, and the plant appeared on the lists of flora, Lady Jean Skipwit in US gardens, the possession of which was purely out of curiosity.
The plant, after naturalization in the UK, was most often used to reinforce railroad embankments. In wet weather, it can suffer from the attack of snails, which climb the stems and gnaw at the foliage. Some Colutea ides are used as food plants by the larvae of several Lepidoptera species, including the Coleophora colutella.
Types and varieties of bladderworm
Scientists cannot immediately recognize some varieties and varieties, since the characteristic differences between them are too negligible, but here are the most popular in gardening:
Arboreal vesicle (Colutea arborescens)
may occur under the names Bladderwort cilician (Colutea cilicica) or Bubble tree … The native area of distribution falls on the territory of the middle and southern European regions, in the western regions of the Mediterranean. There are specimens found near the crater of Mount Vesuvius, where other representatives of the flora are practically not found. It is a tall shrub, reaching a height of 4 m. Shoots have a brown bark with a light undertone, which is provided by a pubescent surface.
Leaf plates can be 15 cm long, their outlines are pinnate. The foliage is green. When blooming, moth flowers of a bright yellow, occasionally reddish hue bloom. The length of the flower is measured at 2 cm. The number of flowers in the inflorescence is small. Flowering, starting in May, stretches for 3 months. After pollination, the multi-seeded fruits ripen, which are attached to the branches with shortened stalks. The length of the fruit reaches 8 cm with a diameter of about 3 cm. Their color is reddish or copper, which makes the bush decorative.
Differs in high growth rate, drought resistance and undemanding soil. Grows in a well-lit place, and perfectly tolerates urban conditions. It can be used both as a tapeworm and in group plantings, when forming hedges. If freezing occurs, it is easily restored with the help of overgrowth. When grown in harsh regions, it is placed in greenhouses or for the winter months, transplanted into pots and transferred indoors. The species has been cultivated since 1570.
The most popular are decorative forms:
- Weeping (form pendula) has elongated drooping branches, outlines resembling lashes, the crown formed through them has a narrowed shape.
- Lorberg (form Lorbergii) characterized by thin twigs and covered with narrow leaf plates, forming a spectacular openwork crown, which has a rather light appearance.
- Curly (form crispa) foliage with a beautiful wavy edge.
The varieties that are in demand for this variety are recognized:
- Variegata the owner of foliage with feathery color and outlines.
- Bullata (Buttata) forms a compact crown, the shape of the bush is compact, the leaves are rounded, as if swollen, which grow up to 1.5 cm in length.
- Copper Beauty during flowering, the inflorescences are collected from flowers with orange-yellow petals, in the place of which the formation of reddish-brown fruits with spectacular outlines occurs.
Oriental bubblewort (Colutea orientalis)
most of all in nature, it is distributed on the territory of the Crimea and the Caucasus. Prefers rocky terrain, has a conservation status in reserves. Compared with the previous species, the size of this shrub does not exceed 1–2 m in height. The foliage is also of smaller parameters - about 6 cm long. In this case, the length of the leaf lobe is not more than 1–2 cm. Leaflets formed by division take on a pale grayish-green color. Their leaf plate has 7-9 units. Their shape is obovate.
Flowers of irregular shape with reddish-brown or orange-red petals. The sail (upper petal) is characterized by the presence of a macula. In the inflorescence, there are 3-5 buds. The flowering process occurs in the first half of summer. After pollination of flowers, fruits ripen with an S-shaped bend. First, their color is violet-red, over time changing to brown. The length of the beans is 4 cm.
The species has been cultivated as a culture since 1710. It can be used in group plantings or as landscaping of curbs. Drought-resistant, prefers good lighting, undemanding to the soil. It perfectly tolerates polluted urban conditions. However, at the same time it is characterized by low frost resistance, in the winter period frosting of the branches occurs. Therefore, with the arrival of spring, it is recommended to prune. Reproduction is possible only generatively - with the help of seeds, since the cuttings practically do not take root.
Vesicle medium (Colutea x media)
is a hybrid plant, obtained by crossing the two previous species - arboreal and oriental pemphigus. It is distinguished from the basic varieties by the presence of leaf plates with obovate leaf lobes and their bluish-green color. When blooming, inflorescences are formed from reddish-brown or orange flowers. The flowering process takes place from mid-summer to mid-September. The length of the ripening fruit is 7 cm. The ripening process of the fruit takes place from September to October.
The difference is the higher winter hardiness in comparison with the oriental bladderworm. The plant is also photophilous, characterized by sensitivity to increased indicators of soil acidity and dryness. Reproduction mainly occurs by means of seeds or root shoots, in rare cases by rooting cuttings. In landscape design, the application is the same as for the basic types.
Buse's bubble (Colutea buhsei)
represented by a small shrub, the crown of which is formed by erect shoots. The branches are covered with leaves gathered in bunches, reaching 7–8 cm in length. The outlines of the leaf blades are pinnate, composed of 7–9 leaf lobes. The contours of the leaflets are rounded. Inflorescences are axillary, racemose. They are formed by flowers with orange-yellow petals. In the inflorescence, there are 1-2 pairs of buds. The flowering process differs in duration, since its beginning occurs in mid-spring and stretches through July.
After the flowers are pollinated, beans with bubble-swollen outlines begin to ripen. Their color is translucent. The length does not go beyond 5-6 cm. The surface of the fruit is scattered hairy.
In nature, it prefers to grow on slopes of rubble soil in the mountainous Turkmen regions. If we talk about other areas of distribution, then it is found in Iran. Differs in high drought resistance, prefers bright and open places. The type is used in green building.