Description of the plant smolensk, requirements for planting and care in a personal plot, recommendations for reproduction, fight against diseases and pests, curious notes for gardeners, species and varieties.
Silene is a member of the Caryophyllaceae family. This genus unites almost 400 species distributed in the Northern Hemisphere, where a northern or temperate climate prevails. Basically, such territories fall on the Mediterranean lands. If we talk about the Russian region and neighboring countries, then about 150 varieties grow there, of which 22 species have a West Siberian distribution, and 15 grow in Altai.
Some of these plants are weeds that grow in fields, littering crops or on wastelands and similar locations. Resins are preferred to dry stony substrates, on which they form tussocks with pillow-like outlines. They fill dry meadows and slopes, shrubs and clearings as weeds.
|Growing period||Perennial, biennial, or annual|
|Vegetation form||Herbaceous, occasionally semi-shrub|
|Breeds||Seeds - annual and biennial species, vegetatively (by cuttings, dividing the bush) - perennial|
|Open ground transplant terms||In spring (after the end of return frosts)|
|Landing rules||In accordance with the parameters of the height of the species - within 30-50 cm|
|Priming||Any garden will do, but loose and nutritious is better.|
|Soil acidity values, pH||pH 6, 5-7 (normal) or slightly below 6 (slightly acidic)|
|Illumination level||Well-lit place or partial shade|
|Humidity level||Watering should be regular during dry and hot periods.|
|Special care rules||Regular fertilization and pruning|
|Height options||0.3-0.45 m|
|Flowering period||May to autumn|
|Type of inflorescences or flowers||Paniculate, corymbose or racemose inflorescences|
|Color of flowers||White, pinkish, crimson or yellowish green|
|Fruit type||Polyspermous capsules|
|The timing of fruit ripening||Since July|
|Application in landscape design||As a ground cover crop, in mixborders and ridges, in flower beds, in the design of borders and rocky areas|
The origin of the genus name according to different versions has several origins. According to the first, it is rooted in the Greek word "sialon", which has a translation for "saliva", all because the surface of the stems is sticky to the touch. According to the second, it is associated with the name of the Greek deity "Silenos", who acted as a companion of Bacchus, the patron saint of vegetation, winemaking and viticulture. This friend of Dionysus went constantly drunk and was remarkably fat. Smolevka was associated with this deity due to the fact that some species had swollen pads. The third version is attributed to the Greek term “silene,” meaning “moon,” all because there are species that bloom at night. The people can hear the name "drema" due to the fact that herbal-based healers prepare decoctions used for nervous disorders or depression.
Among the types of resins, there are perennial, biennial or annual plants. In any case, they are characterized by the presence of rhizomes and a herbaceous form of growth, and only in rare cases do they take the form of a semi-shrub. Plant height from 30 to 45 cm. Stems can be erect or ascending, and also have abundant branching. The foliage is located on the shoots in the opposite order. Leaves are sessile, with lanceolate or linear, spatulate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate outlines. The color of the leaves is a rich green color. Glandular pubescence of hairs is present on leaf plates and stems, but sometimes their surface is bare.
Because of such a sticky pubescence, the plant seems to place "snares" into which insects arriving at the scent of flowers fall.
Flowering, beginning in late spring, stretches in the smole until autumn. Flowers are bisexual, only in rare cases are they unisexual, so the plants are mono- or dioecious. The shape of the flowers is star-shaped, the diameter at full disclosure is 3 cm. There are five petals in the corolla. Often, the petals are grooved at the tops. Their outlines are oblong, often the top is twisted. The color of the petals is whitish, pinkish, crimson or yellowish-green. Their rim is solid or divided into two parts or multipart. Sometimes the corolla has a crown. In the cup of resin, the leaves are soldered, the shape of the cup may resemble a tube or bell. Its outline is jagged or incised, there are a dozen veins.
From the flowers, paniculate, corymboid or racemose inflorescences are collected, occasionally on the branches there are single buds. Since the flowers bloom at night and spread a strong pleasant aroma around, moths act as pollinators. The fruit after pollination in the resin is a box filled with seeds, spherical or oval-conical in shape. Bolls are three-celled, with a diameter of almost 30 cm. The color of the fruits is yellowish-brown. The seeds are characterized by very small sizes, there are about 2,200 of them in 1 gram. Their color can vary from brownish-red to grayish-black. The seed is reniform.
The plant is not capricious and if you adhere to the following rules, you can grow colorful carpet or bushes on the site, delighting with long flowering.
Requirements for planting and caring for resin in the open field
- Landing place you will not have to choose the bushes of "slumber" for a long time, since the plant will successfully develop and bloom both in a sunny flower bed and in partial shade. But it is worth remembering that a thick shadow will negatively affect the resin, it will gradually die off, and the flowering will become much worse. It is not necessary that groundwater lies close to the landing site, since waterlogged soil can cause rotting of the root system. It is better to choose a location for growing this plant so that the midday rays do not burn its foliage, since overheating negatively affects the appearance, growth and flowering.
- Soil for resin Anyone can be used, since this representative of the flora is undemanding to this aspect. But the best flowering and growth is seen on a fertile and loose substrate. It is recommended to mix the soil with compost before planting. If it is too dense and clayey, then river sand and crushed stone are mixed into it. It is preferable that the acidity values are in the range of pH 6, 5-7 (are normal) or pH slightly below 6 (slightly acidic). If the species is undersized, then it is necessary to use high-quality drainage for it, and the soil should not be waterlogged. For high-altitude varieties, a dry and sandy substrate is recommended.
- Planting smolens carried out in the spring, when the threat of return frosts has completely passed, since tender seedlings may suffer. If the soil is wet, it is recommended to put a layer of drainage (expanded clay or crushed stone) into the hole when planting. Since the root system is rod-shaped, the transplant is performed without destroying the earthy coma that surrounds the roots. A hole is dug out of such a size that an earthen seedling clod can easily fit in it, and its root collar was at the level of the soil of the site. After planting, abundant watering is recommended.
- Watering when growing resins, it is necessary on dry and hot days. But it should be remembered that a waterlogged substrate is not welcomed by a plant. Moisten the soil as its top layer dries up. Moisture in the soil should not stagnate.
- Fertilizers in the process of cultivation, it is recommended to introduce the resin during the period of activation of growth and when the flowering process begins. Every month, you should feed using full mineral complexes, for example, Kemiru-Universal or Fertik. When budding is in progress, such fertilizers are needed for the bushes of the "slumber" every week.
- General recommendations for care. It is important to remember that some species of bushes respond very badly to transplanting and may even die. This is due to the fact that such resins are characterized by the presence of a taproot. Therefore, most of the perennials of the genus can be perfectly grown without changing their location for a long time. The seeds are harvested until the capsules begin to fall to the ground. A sign of their complete maturation is that they open easily when pressed with fingers. It is recommended to carefully remove stems that did not fall off on their own in a timely manner. Since “baldness” occurs with age in the central part, it is necessary to divide the bush or after flowering to perform pruning in order to obtain the desired shape for the next growing season.
- The use of resin in landscape design. It is recommended to plant such plantings in rock gardens and stone gardens open to the sun. If it is necessary to form a border, then low-growing species are used, they will also look good in flower combinations from a variety of flowering representatives of the garden flora: violets and bells, arbis and chippings. A good neighborhood will be blue gentian. With tall varieties, delphiniums and small-petals are planted next to them for decorative purposes. If smolens are characterized by the presence of erect stems, then they are decorated with ridges and lawns, and also planted in mixborders. When a species can form cushion thickets in nature, then it is used as a ground cover crop. Such varieties are planted in stone gardens, filling the voids between stones (for example, the species Silene armeria), or they can be placed in trunks under the crowns of trees or tall bushes. The same decoration of rock gardens will be species with a red color of inflorescences. Due to its long, creeping shoots, the species of drooping resin (Silene pendula) can be grown as an ampelous culture, when planted in garden vases or when creating low borders, it is customary to decorate terraces and balconies with it. In flower beds, balsams and marigolds, fragrant tobacco and a variety of petunias will also be good neighbors for the small ones. Some varieties of "slumber" will be ideal for planting for exhibitions.
- Blank for medicinal purposes, only varieties of common resin (Silene vulgaris) are performed. To do this, use the part of the bush that grows above the ground, but root shoots will also come in handy. The stalks and foliage are harvested in May-June. All grass must be thoroughly rinsed and spread out on a horizontal surface on a clean cloth. It is advisable to lay out each stem neatly, and not heap in a heap, otherwise they will begin to rot. The room where the collected material is placed for drying must be provided with good ventilation. After the drying of the resin grass is completed (a sign will be a slight breakage of the stems), everything is folded into paper bags that close tightly. Storage is carried out in complete darkness, the temperature should be room temperature (within 20-23 degrees), exposure to sunlight is excluded. It happens that fruits are harvested - boxes. They should be collected in the middle of autumn; the drying and storage rules are the same as for grass.
Read more about creating the conditions for growing a shrimp.
Reproduction of resin by cuttings, growing from seeds, dividing a bush
Since there are annual, biennial and perennial varieties in the genus, the breeding methods for them are different. For the first two, it is best to use the generative method (seeds), and for the latter, the vegetative method (dividing the bush and rooting cuttings).
Reproduction of resin with seeds
This method is suitable for more varieties. Seed material is sown immediately after collection in a flower bed, or as soon as the soil is cleared of snow (March-April). If seeds of perennials are sown (for example, drooping resin), then these manipulations are carried out in the fall. When seeds are planted in the soil immediately after they are fully ripe and harvested, the sprouts can be seen as early as next spring. In the case of spring sowing, as a rule, flowering will be shifted to the next growing season.
You can cultivate seedlings from resinous seeds. So sowing is carried out at the end of February using seedling boxes filled with peat-sandy soil. After the seedlings appear and a pair of leaf plates develop on them, a dive into separate pots is performed using the same soil. And only when the threat of return frosts has passed (late May or early June) is it fashionable to transplant smolens seedlings to a prepared place in the flower bed. Then flowering can be expected this summer. The distance between the seedlings will directly depend on the parameters reached by the stems in height and the variety of "drema" - about 30-50 cm.
Reproduction of the resin by dividing the bush
This operation is recommended to be performed before active growth begins. The bush is carefully removed from the soil and, using a sharpened knife, its root system is divided. Moreover, each of the divisions must have a sufficient number of roots and shoots, have at least a couple of points of renewal. Planting is carried out immediately after dividing into a prepared place, using a substrate enriched with humus.
Reproduction of resin by cuttings
The workpieces should be cut in such a way that their length does not exceed 5 cm. For stemless resin (Silene acaulis), this operation is performed in the summer months, and for the seaside resinous species (Silene uniflora), spring is suitable. This method is most suitable for propagation of any garden forms. The cuttings are planted in containers filled with a peat-sand mixture. They are placed under a glass or plastic hood for speedy rooting. When rooting, watering is carried out, if the soil begins to dry out, daily ventilation is also needed. After the cuttings take root, they can be planted in the garden, but only when the return frosts have already passed.
Disease and pest control when growing resin in the garden
Among the pests that can pose a problem when growing "slumber" botanists have identified:
- Slugs and snails, plants that have taken a fancy to foliage and are capable of damaging its buds. These gastropods can be harvested by hand, sprinkled with crushed egg powder between rows, or using metaldehyde preparations, which are available from flower or garden stores. An example of such means is Groza-Meta.
- Aphid, which is clearly visible on the foliage and stems of the resin. It is represented by a large number of small bugs sucking out nutritious juices, gradually bringing the plant into a depressed state. You can fight such insects either with the help of folk remedies (a solution based on green or laundry soap) or using insecticidal preparations (for example, Aktaru, Karbofos or Actellik). It is important to immediately destroy aphids, since it can carry viral diseases that cannot be treated, and the pad (a product of the beetles' vital activity) left on the leaves or stems leads to the development of a sooty fungus.
- Mealybugs - pests that also feed on cellular juices from leaves or stems of resin. You can determine their presence by whitish, like cotton balls, which are formed in internodes. The method of fighting is the same as with aphids.
From severe waterlogging, rotting of the root system can begin and then an urgent transplant is required, but first destroy all parts of the bush damaged by rot and treat the remaining fungicidal agents (for example, Bordeaux liquid or Fundazol).
Read also about diseases and pests in the cultivation of cockle
Curious notes for gardeners about the smolyovka flower
In medicine, it is customary to use the following types of "snooze", such as cracker (Silene vulgari or ordinary) and drooping (Silene nutans), creeping (Silene repens) and Yenisei (Silene jenisseensis), multifloral (Silene multiflora) and Volga (Silene wolgensis). The substances that are included in the aerial part of these varieties are used for the preparation of drugs used in the treatment of nervous disorders, stopping bleeding and eliminating inflammatory processes, they relieve pain symptoms and have an antitoxic effect. When collecting blooming resin, you can get an infusion that cures problems in the field of gynecology: leucorrhoea, vaginitis or metritis. There is also a diuretic property, so resin is prescribed for renal diseases and the bladder.
Since the herb has properties to have a softening effect on the skin, such decoctions are added to baths. The same remedy will help in eliminating skin inflammations such as lichens and erysipelas. If you get resin juice, then it is used to treat conjunctivitis, and by rinsing the mouth with it, you can get rid of toothache. Tincture of "slumber" will help to remove headaches and manifestations of premenstrual syndrome. In ancient times, healers used a decoction from the roots to treat tuberculosis or if a person suffered from excessive shortness of breath.
It should be used with caution, as there are a number of contraindications:
- gastrointestinal diseases: chronic or acute colitis, gastritis or constipation;
- high acidity of gastric juice;
- any trimester of pregnancy;
- breastfeeding period;
- the child's age of the patient.
Also, the foliage of the common resin can be used in salads in the spring, helping to prevent the development of vitamin deficiency. In Spain, this representative of the flora is called "collejeros" and it was valued at the level of green vegetables. In the old days, if a child showed poor growth, then he was bathed in decoctions prepared from the roots of the resin. If a person was bitten by a rabid animal, then it was recommended to drink tincture from the "slumber".
The type of common resin is called "clapperboard" because if you pick the spherical fruit of the plant and hit it, you will hear a characteristic cotton.
Types and varieties of resin
Heavenly rose (Silene coeli-rosa)
is an annual species, the height of the stems of which does not exceed the mark of half a meter. On stems devoid of pubescence, whole leaf plates with a pointed apex unfold. The foliage is devoid of petioles. When blooming, flowers bloom of the correct shape, the diameter of which, when fully opened, is 2.5 cm. From them, inflorescences of corymbose-paniculate outlines are collected. The petals in the corolla can be white, pink, as well as red or purple.
An annual, which is notable for its short stature, the height of its stems reaches only a quarter of a meter. Shoots are characterized by branching and a reddish tint to the surface. The leaves on them have an oval shape. The resulting loose inflorescences have racemose outlines. They are composed of very small flowers, the diameter of which is close to 2 cm. Flowers can have both a simple and double structure of corollas. The petals are painted white or pinkish-crimson. The plant is characterized by the formation of low cushion clumps, flowering in which stretches from the end of spring days to September.
Common resin (Silene vulgaris)
named synonym Smolovka cracker, and also popularly called a tooth-potion or smolyanka, egg grass or oberna, or a very wonderful one - potoskuyka. It is recognized only in traditional medicine. A perennial herbaceous species that blooms with white petals in bloom. The calyx has a bubble-like swelling. Its width can be up to 7–10 mm, while the length parameters vary within 13–18 cm. Up to 20 veins are visible on the surface of the calyx. If you hit such a swollen part of the flower with your palm, you will hear a sound in the form of a cotton, which was the reason for the specific name.
The flowers of the common resin are crowned with short pedicels. The length of the petals is 1.5–2 times longer than the sepals. The petals have a dissection and are bent back by the tops. During the day, the flowers are tightly closed, but when evening comes, they begin to open, attracting the scent of moths. Flowering occurs during all summer months. The fruit is a spherical box filled with seeds of kidney-shaped outlines.
The height of the stems of this type of resin can vary within 0.4–1 m. The stem has a bare surface and grows erect. The leaf plates take on lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate outlines. The length of the leaves is 10 cm with a width of only 3 cm. The color of the deciduous mass is bluish. Narrowing into a shortened petiole is present.
The native habitat of the common sap falls on the territory of the western and northern European regions. It is not uncommon in Asia Minor and Central Asia, as well as in the Caucasus and the Himalayas, in the north of both the African continent and North America. It is widespread in all regions of Russia, excluding the southern and desert regions and areas of the Arctic zone.
from the specific name it is clear that the area of its distribution falls on the territory of the Alps (eastern regions) and the mountainous regions of the Balkan Peninsula. Since the height of plant stems reaches only 10–20 cm, it is possible to form cushion-shaped thickets with their help. Shoots are characterized by forked outlines, with abundant branching. Green leaf plates with a glossy surface unfold on them. The shape of the leaves is lanceolate.
The flowering process in the alpine smolens occurs throughout the summer. The flowers are snow-white. For cultivation, it is recommended to select a moderately moist soil saturated with humus and lime, it should also have a high friability. The species can be grown both in the sun and in partial shade. They are used for landscaping dry rocky walls, in mixborders, along with plantings of undersized flora.
The most popular varieties:
- Pleniflorum with snow-white flowering;
- Roseum characterized by beautiful shades of pink in the petals, but there are specimens with flowers of a rich scarlet tone.
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