Cesspool: sanitary rules and regulations

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Cesspool: sanitary rules and regulations
Cesspool: sanitary rules and regulations

Cesspools provided by law. Regulatory rules for the placement of drives on the site. Sump cleaning according to SNiP requirements.

The issue of waste disposal in summer cottages and suburban areas is often solved by the construction of a sewer pit. During its construction, it is necessary to comply with the sanitary standards for the drives, which are given in the regulatory documents and legislative standards. Their violation can lead to administrative and even criminal penalties. Information on the most important rules for the placement and construction of sedimentation tanks, as well as the norms for the distance of the cesspool, can be found in this article.

Cesspools permitted by SNiP

The design of a sealed cesspool and accumulator without a bottom
The design of a sealed cesspool and accumulator without a bottom

In a suburban area, for the disposal of household wastewater, they often dig a drain pit or build a storage tank with sewer pipes. The requirements for their arrangement and operation are carefully spelled out in SanPiN 42-128-4690-88 and SNiP 30-02-97.

These regulatory documents prohibit the uncontrolled construction of such structures, which allows you to preserve the health of those living in the house and the ecology of the site. They state that it is possible to equip a sump only after obtaining permission from the SES and approval of the construction project. To do this, your document must comply with all sanitary standards specified in regulatory documents.

Important! The relevant services have the right to check the condition of the waste pit and its compliance with the project.

The classical design is an open-type sump - a leaky structure without a bottom. It is intended for use in suburban areas where people live temporarily. This design is capable of serving 1-2 people. According to the requirements of SanPiN, a cesspool without a bottom should hold up to 1 m3 drains per day.

In loose soils, the walls of the pit are reinforced with concrete rings, a brick wall or in another way. The walls of the pit in clay do not require reinforcement.

To reduce the negative impact of effluents, it is necessary to create filter layer at the bottom of the structure. According to the requirements of sanitary organizations, it is created from sand (20-30 cm) and crushed stone (50 cm). Do not use fine stone bedding, because it quickly becomes clogged with impurities. This design allows liquid effluent to partially flow into open ground.

It is allowed to build a cesspool if the groundwater is located far from the surface. You cannot equip an open sump in a swampy area.

From above, the storage tank is covered with a concrete slab with a thickness of at least 120 mm. It should be 30 cm larger than the diameter of the container. A hatch is made in it, through which the tank is cleaned. A clay bulk castle is poured around the neck so that rainwater or floods do not fall into the sump.

The drive design must necessarily include ventilation systemthrough which the gas generated during long-term storage of sewage is discharged to the outside. Usually this is a pipe with a diameter of 100 mm protruding from the tank to a height of at least 1.5 m. If the purifier is sealed tightly, the gas can explode. The main disadvantage of this design is the pollution of soil, water and even plants with sewage.

If the estimated amount of wastewater per day is 1 m3, SanPin prohibits the use of cesspools without a bottom. In this case, a large sump is built of brick, concrete or metal, which do not allow water to enter the soil. At the bottom, the reservoir must be closed with a concrete bottom. Several small items can be installed side by side instead of one.

The most common material for a sealed drain pit is reinforced concrete rings with a diameter of 700-2000 mm and a height of 900 mm. After installation, the joints between them are sealed with a waterproof material. Brick tanks are popular. It is not difficult to assemble such a wall, the work can be done independently.

The norms of the cesspool will always be met if you use plastic products prefabricated. All units and places necessary for the operation of the device have already been manufactured. It remains only to determine the required size of the product and install it in its original place.

Most consistent with sanitary standards cesspools in the form of septic tanks … These are environmentally friendly systems in which sewage drains are almost completely cleaned of impurities. After passing through all the tanks, the liquid can be used for irrigation. Solid waste is removed mechanically.

In urban conditions, it is allowed to install yard sedimentation tanks if there is no central sewerage nearby. The underground part is made waterproof, a single structure of tightly fitted beams and blocks is installed above it. For easy cleaning, the front wall of the toilet is removable. The maximum filling of the tank is 35 cm to the ground surface. Otherwise, it will be difficult to cope with the consequences of overflowing the pit. It is allowed to build one drive for several apartments.

The volume of the tank is calculated by competent organizations, which take into account the number of people living in the yard. The structure is equipped with a lid and a grate for separating insoluble fractions.

It is necessary to consider in advance a method for pumping out sewage from the tank. If you plan to use a flush truck, provide access to the drive.

Rules for placing the drive on the site

Requirements for the location of the cesspool on the site
Requirements for the location of the cesspool on the site

The place for the main element of the local sewerage system on the site is selected in accordance with the law of the Russian Federation "On the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population", as well as in compliance with the rules of good neighborliness. To properly build the drive, study the norms of the cesspool on the site, which largely depend on its design.

Requirements for placing the purifier without a bottom:

  • Dig a pit in the area adjacent to the building.
  • Place the reservoir below the level of the drinking water intake.
  • Its shape can be any, but round is considered the best - it is easier to pump out impurities from it, dirt does not remain in the corners.
  • It is recommended to comply with the norms for the distance of the cesspool to the residential building - at least 25 m, although there is no consensus on the safe distance from the sump to the home. Other structures can be located up to 10 m from the pit.
  • According to the norms of the cesspool, leave at least 20 m from the neighbor's house to the storage tank. This is a sufficient distance at which the toxic fumes released from the sump are harmless to humans. Lawyers recommend obtaining written permission from neighbors for the arrangement of these systems.
  • The construction of a storage tank closer than 10 m from the building can lead to flooding of the basement and destruction of the building's foundation. If the distance between him and a residential building on a foreign territory is less, the neighbors have the right to sue the owner in court, which can fine the owner.
  • Leave 1-1.5 m between the fence and the drainage pit. This is a sufficient distance to pump out sewage with a sewer truck without entering the site.
  • Do not dig a sump with a depth of more than 3 m. This size allows you to completely pump out the sewage from the tank, because the hose of the device reaches the bottom. Leave at least 1 m between the bottom of the pit and the groundwater to keep it clean.
  • When building the storage tank on a slope site, do not allow waste to enter groundwater. Subsequently, the nearest wells will be contaminated with sewage.

Rules for placing common drain pits for several families:

  • The storage devices are built at a distance of 20 to 100 m to residential buildings, kindergartens, schools, playgrounds for children, etc.
  • If the tank is planned to be located on the territory of a private household, the distance to the housing should remain within 8-10 m.
  • If you have any disputes between neighbors about the placement of drives with a problem, contact the public and the local government council commission. The solution may not comply with the norms of SNiP cesspools, but one requirement remains unchanged - the storage device must be located at a distance of at least 50 m from water sources.

Requirements for the location of sealed septic tanks:

  • The structure can be placed at a distance of 5 m from a kitchen or other building.
  • Closed septic tank with a volume of 8 m3 it is allowed to install at a distance of 8 m from buildings.
  • If it is impossible to fulfill these requirements, contact the Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision for obtaining permission for a closer placement of sedimentation tanks to the house.

According to the norms for the construction of a cesspool, the drive must be located at a certain distance from the water and gas pipes on the site, depending on the composition of the soil. Requirements are shown in the table:

Pipe material Appointment Distance
Reinforced concrete, asbestos Water pipes 5 m
Cast iron, pipe diameter up to 200 mm Water pipes 1.5 m
Cast iron, pipe diameter over 200 mm Water pipes 3m
Metal Gas pipeline 5 m

On clay soils between the reservoir and the well, provide a distance of 20 m, on loamy soils - 30 m, on sandy and sandy loam - at least 50 m. This distance will not allow contamination of the water supply in case of possible accidents.

Failure to comply with the requirements for the cesspool can cause inconvenience to the owners and neighbors. Such unpleasant moments may appear:

  • Damage to the foundation of a residential building due to cracks and deformations in the walls. Permission marks can be seen all over the wall surface.
  • An unpleasant smell that interferes with the rest of people who live very close to the drain pit.
  • A large amount of untreated wastewater enters the soil nearby and changes its chemical composition. As a result, trees and shrubs dry out near the drive.

Drive care according to cesspool regulations

Sump cleaning
Sump cleaning

The norms on cesspools indicate the rules of care that ensure the long-term operation of the sump. All devices, regardless of design, must be cleaned 2 times a year with disinfectants in order to destroy pathogenic bacteria. For these purposes, acid-based solutions, gentle mixtures or home-made compositions are used.

Important! It is forbidden to clean the tanks with preparations that, when interacting with water, form toxic gases that are dangerous to humans. These substances include quicklime. The discharge is odorless, but causes upper respiratory illness.

According to the SanPiN standards, cesspools are disinfected with such preparations:

  • 10% bleach solution;
  • 5% creolin solution;
  • 10% naphthalezol solution;
  • 3-5% sodium hypochlorite solution;
  • 10% sodium metasilicate solution.

Disinfection is carried out after complete cleaning of the pit contents mechanically. For this purpose, a sewage truck with a tank and a pump is used. The unit includes a long hose that is capable of pumping out sewage from a depth of no more than 3 m. After removing the liquid part, the walls are freed from solid build-ups with a metal brush. The container is rinsed with clean water, which is evacuated with a pump.

In addition to chemicals, bioactivators are used to clean the drive - special microorganisms that are able to live and reproduce without light and oxygen. After being placed in a tank, they recycle organics and turn solid fragments into a semi-liquid mass. In the future, it can be used as fertilizer on the site.

Yard pits are cleaned every day. Disinfection - once a week. During cleaning, the water containing disinfectants must be warm. Penetration of rodents and insects is not allowed.

Watch the video about the waste pit:

The rules for construction and maintenance given in the article are binding on private and legal entities. Failure to comply with the location of cesspools with the norms and rules of Russian legislation can cause accidents with serious consequences.