Rules for choosing a septic tank for a summer residence. The device of biological wastewater purifiers. A brief description of the popular models of prefabricated sedimentation tanks. A septic tank for a summer residence is a device for use in the sewer system of summer country houses. It is intended for cleaning small volumes of liquid, because most often the owners come to rest periodically. How to solve the problem of drains in a recreation area will be discussed in this article.
Rules for choosing a septic tank for a summer residence
A septic tank is a device for treating sewage from a house. The schematic diagram of the structure is a system of chambers connected in series with adapters. In the first compartment, the heaviest inclusions settle to the bottom, where they are partially decomposed by microbes. In the next container, the clarified water continues to be purified with the help of microorganisms, and then is discharged outside. If necessary, the liquid is directed to the filtration fields outside the sump to improve the quality of cleaning.
To determine which septic tank is best used in the sewerage system of a summer residence, take into account the objective living conditions outside the city. The main factors when choosing small devices are the quality of water purification, efficiency, ease of use, installation and maintenance.
Do not be guided by the cost of the product, often manufacturers do not indicate all the costs of its arrangement. Simple technical solutions that stand out for their low price do not always allow for the efficient processing of highly polluted water. Therefore, when buying a septic tank, take into account the balance of investments and the quality of the final product.
When choosing a device, the number of drains is of great importance. According to the requirements of SNiP, the dimensions of the septic tank should be such that a three-day drainage of water is placed in it, at the rate of 200 liters per day for 1 person. For a family of three, its volume must be at least 600 liters (0.6 m3). To dispose of so much liquid, a single-chamber septic tank is enough.
If it is planned to live in the country all year round, the volume may exceed 10 m3, therefore, the cleaning system must be two-chamber. In this case, use a deep cleaning station that can handle a lot of waste. Often, the sewage of several houses is drained into one station, which reduces the cost of its acquisition and operation.
The size of the cleaner is also influenced by the number of installed plumbing fixtures and their purpose. If the house has a sink and a shower, structures up to 10 m are suitable3… For a summer cottage with a bath, automatic washing machine, dishwasher, choose a chamber with a volume of more than 10 m3.
If you are choosing between a purchased or homemade septic tank, consider the following characteristics of factory-made models:
- Purchased products are easy to assemble. It is enough to dig a pit of the appropriate size and lower the box into it. After connecting the pipes, fill in the remaining gaps between the body and the soil. All work can be done by hand.
- An industrial product is quickly put into operation.
- The amount of complicated and dirty work is minimal.
- Of the shortcomings, we single out the high cost of purchased devices.
The best septic tanks for summer cottages, manufactured at a factory, are considered to be small sedimentation tanks made of plastic, concrete or metal. Each material has its own advantages and disadvantages, which can be found out from the table.
|Plastic||Lightness, durability, ease of installation, low cost||Small volume||In rarely visited dachas, with a small number of residents, if it is impossible to drain purified water into the ground|
|Concrete||Ease of installation, durability, the possibility of self-production||Manufacturing complexity, long construction period, prefabricated products do not provide reliable tightness||When organizing filtration fields|
|Metal||Low cost, relatively light weight||Complex installation due to the presence of additional devices in its composition - pumps, filter, compressor, etc.||In deep cleaning stations, if it is impossible to drain the treated water into the ground|
The advantage of hand-made septic tanks is the possibility of its independent construction from any material. For the construction of tanks, blanks are used that are at hand - brick, stone, concrete mortar, car tires, waste containers, etc. However, you will have to make significant physical efforts. In addition, the independent creation of a purification system does not guarantee compliance with construction and environmental standards.
Note! Homemade structures are recommended to be installed in summer cottages with periodic residence. Do not forget about the composition of the soil on the site. Sandy soil makes it possible to organize filtration fields for additional wastewater treatment. As it seeps through the layer of sand and gravel, the water almost completely gets rid of foreign inclusions.
It is not recommended to pour the purified liquid into the soil at a high level of groundwater and if there is clay on the site. In this case, the drains are treated by a biological or biochemical method only in a septic tank, and then they are drained into a sealed compartment with subsequent discharge to a specially designated place or pumped out by a sewage machine.
If desired, on clay soils and loams, you can equip filters for additional treatment of wastewater. To do this, dig a pit and cover it with sand, gravel, expanded clay or other material that allows liquid to pass through well.
The main types of septic tanks for summer cottages
To accelerate the decomposition of organic impurities, microorganisms are added to the septic tank - aerobic and anaerobic microbes. The former consume oxygen, the latter do without it. Cleaners with different types of microbes have their own advantages and disadvantages, so the site owner must study them and make a conscious choice.
Anaerobic septic tanks
Such a system consists of a one- or two-chamber tank, from which water is supplied for final treatment to the filter fields. This type of sump is suitable for a family of 2-3 people with little water consumption.
Wastewater treatment in anaerobic septic tanks is as follows. A large amount of gas is generated in the first container, which displaces oxygen. Such conditions are favorable for the multiplication of anaerobic bacteria. A thick layer of dark-colored silt forms at the bottom, which must be removed periodically. Otherwise, the cleaner will quickly fail. In order for the microbes to function effectively for a long time, do not clean the chamber completely, be sure to leave a small amount of sludge. Further, the effluents enter the next compartment, where they continue to be filtered, and then they are discharged outside.
In sedimentation tanks of this type, the liquid is purified by only 70%, therefore, outside the septic tank, filter fields are created for its additional purification. Users choose such devices due to their non-volatility. to maintain the vital functions of microbes, no air supply is required from pumps. Microbes are not afraid of frost, because when organic matter decays, heat is released. The chambers of the product must be ventilated in order to remove the methane that appears during the decomposition of feces to the outside.
Anaerobic septic tanks include a fecal reservoir. This is the cheapest waste disposal option. It is built if very rarely a small number of residents come to the dacha. The sump is a cesspool in which all three stages of cleaning take place - primary filtration, decomposition of organic matter and drainage into the soil. The degree of purification in the drive can be up to 60%. To build a cesspool, it is enough to dig a pit and waterproof the walls. After filling it, the contents are removed by a waste disposal machine. If the drive is not cleaned for a long time, germs will cease to function.
Important! Anaerobic microorganisms slowly process inclusions, therefore bioactivators are added to the working chambers.
Aerobic septic tanks
Products of this type are popular among owners of summer cottages who want to thoroughly clean the drains. Such a device purifies the liquid by 98%. It is recommended to install it in dachas with permanent residence of the owners, because without new inputs, aerobic microbes will die.
The product is expensive due to the complex design and high technological effectiveness of the biological process, so the reasons for installing it must be compelling. For example, if it is impossible to create filtration fields for additional purification of water or, if desired, use drains for watering the garden. Also, an aerobic septic tank is appreciated due to the absence of unpleasant odors and maximum biosecurity - the water after passing the product does not pollute the site.
Aerobic septic tanks are volatile purifiers. for microorganisms in the device, oxygen is needed, which is forcedly supplied with air by electric pumps. It is not recommended to install a sediment tank if electricity is often cut off in the country. In septic tanks of this type, a small amount of solid waste is generated, which must be disposed of every few years. After a power outage and a cessation of oxygen supply, the device switches to the anaerobic septic tank operating mode. If the owners are absent for a long time (for example, in winter), the station is recommended to be mothballed.
Very often a combined cleaning method is used in aerobic products. In the first chamber, heavy inclusions fall to the bottom and are partially processed by anaerobic microbes, as already described above. The second chamber contains aerobic microbes that do not require oxygen. They are removed artificially and attached to the filters at the stage of the purifier manufacturing. The water after the second section can be used for irrigation. Periodically, this compartment is blown with air to mix the effluent from the first chamber with sludge.
Which factory-made septic tank is best for giving?
Manufacturers offer a large number of different models of sedimentation tanks for placement in suburban areas. If you do not know which septic tank is best for giving, study the characteristics of the products that are most often discussed on the Internet.
Septic tank Topas
This is the simplest biological wastewater purifier. It is a large tank divided into three sections. The box body is made of plastic, the walls are reinforced with stiffening ribs.
In the first section, solids, including faeces, are separated, settled and processed by anaerobic microbes. In the second, inclusions are processed by aerobic microorganisms. In the third compartment, the activated sludge is settled, and the clarified water is discharged outside.
The degree of water purification reaches 99%. After cleaning the tank, the sludge can be used to fertilize the site. Septic tank Topas is produced in various versions, which differ in the volume of the processed liquid. For summer cottages, it is recommended to use small models (3 or 5), which are mounted manually. The numbers indicate the number of people living in the house that the septic tank is able to serve.
There are models with a built-in compressor for forced air supply to the chamber and with natural ventilation, not dependent on the presence of electricity.
Among the disadvantages of the system, we note its high cost due to the use of special bacteria. Also, the device requires quality maintenance. Keep it warm for the winter to keep the bacteria from freezing.
Uses microbes-anaerators for cleaning. Consists of two plastic containers - a sump and an infiltrator. The main tank is a tank divided into three sections. In the first, the largest elements settle to the bottom, in the second - suspensions, in the third, liquid inclusions are processed by microorganisms.
The degree of cleaning at the outlet from the tank reaches 75%, which is not enough for pouring into the soil. Therefore, the liquid is sent for additional treatment to the Triton infiltrator. This is a container without a bottom, which is installed on a thick layer of rubble. As it percolates through the free-flowing mass, the liquid is freed from most of the impurities. Users note the simplicity of the design and efficiency of the septic tank, the autonomous operation of the device without electricity. To serve a family of 3 people who come to the dacha for a short time, it is necessary to install the Tank 1 model. Other models are able to serve a larger number of residents.
The accumulated dirt should be removed from the tanks every 2 years. For the winter period, the device is preserved. However, the Tank can be installed if the groundwater level is low and the soil on the site is moisture-permeable.
Septic tank Termit
The characteristics of the device are almost identical with the Tank septic tank. The models differ only in the thickness of the walls of the tanks: for the Tank - 1 cm, for the Termite - 2 cm. Therefore, the service life of the Termite is longer, which increases its cost.
Refers to a closed-type cleaning system. It is produced in several modifications designed for a different number of residents.
The Astra 3 model is suitable for summer cottages. The tank is divided into 4 parts. The cleaning scheme in the Astra septic tank is quite complex and involves the alternation of sedimentation of the liquid and the decomposition of inclusions by aerobic microbes.
The advantages of Astra are considered the possibility of its installation anywhere on the site, regardless of the composition of the soil and the level of groundwater, a high degree of water purification - 98%. The product is often completed with devices that facilitate its installation and operation - a sewage pumping station, an ultraviolet disinfectant, an ultrasonic cavitation unit, etc. After passing through all the chambers, the water can be used for irrigation.
Septic tank Ergobox
It has a similar device with the Astra septic tank, but, in addition to four working chambers, there is another one in which the control unit is located. Only very wealthy people can afford such a system.
How to choose a septic tank for a summer residence - watch the video:
Due to the wide variety of septic tanks, it is quite difficult to make the right choice of a device for use in the country. We hope that our article has helped to understand the features of the functioning of various types of cleaners and to determine the model of the product.