Types of artesian wells and their structure, advantages and disadvantages. Mine drilling technology. How to facilitate the operation of the source? In addition, you need to be aware of the disadvantages of such sources:
- The liquid can contain a large amount of minerals and chemical compounds that are harmful to humans. If a dangerous concentration of a substance is detected, special filtration systems should be installed.
- High-quality water is located deep, so the cost of building the spring is very high.
- To drill an artesian well, you need to obtain a special permit, because such water is considered a valuable natural resource. Acts are issued by specialists on the basis of state regulatory documents, which requires significant financial investments. Registration of permits can take a long time.
- Natural resource use tax must be paid every quarter.
- This water contains a large amount of calcium and magnesium salts, which increase its hardness. When it is heated in a boiler or kettle, a precipitate forms, the liquid becomes cloudy, and salt layers form on the walls of the container and on the heating elements.
Artesian well drilling instruction
Due to the great depth of the artesian well, specialized equipment will be required for drilling. Experience of similar work is also required. But in the case of occurrence of limestone rocks up to 30 m from the surface, the mine can be made independently using simple devices. It is not recommended to dig deeper excavations by hand. The financial costs for it will be comparable to the costs of using autonomous drilling rigs.
Let's consider in detail the process of drilling an artesian one-pipe well:
- Assemble a tripod for lifting the drill with rods. It is made of beams with a diameter of 15-20 cm. The height of the structure should be such that when assembled, with a suspended winch and a working tool, at least 2 m remains to the ground.
- Attach the winch lug to the top of the tripod.
- Dig a hole in which the caisson can fit. Usually, a depth of 2 m is sufficient for its installation. The dimensions of the pit walls are 1.5x1.5 m. If you plan to insulate the box and thus protect the well from freezing, dig the hole 1 m wider, so that it is convenient to carry out insulation work from the outside. Inside the caisson, it will be possible to place a pump, filters and other equipment of the plumbing system.
- Place a tripod over the pit and hang the winch on the hook. Attach a drill to its chain and lower it with the tip to the ground, thus determining the center of the hole.
- If you are not satisfied with the location of the shaft in the pit, move the tripod in the required direction.
- Fix the structure by digging its supports into the ground to a depth of 70-80 cm.
- Dig a hole 40-50 cm deep in the marked place.
- Install the auger in it and turn it with the removable collar until it goes down to its full depth.
- Remove the tool and clear of soil.
- At the bottom of the pit and on top of it, put wooden shields, in which one hole is made. Their diameter should be equal to the diameter of the casing. Temporarily fix the shields in the position in which the centers of the holes are located along the axis of the working.
- Install an elbow with a filter in the shaft, through the holes in the shields, and check the verticality of the column. If necessary, ensure its verticality by moving the upper deck above the pit horizontally.
- Secure the shields from moving. They will serve as a conductor that will not allow the mine to tilt.
- Lower the auger into the casing until it stops, it should remain hanging on the removable collar.
- Attach a 1-1.5 m long bar to the auger.
- Move the gate to the bar and lower the structures using the winch to the stop.
- Rotate the structure until it deepens by 30-40 cm. Lift it out of the shaft and clear it of soil.
- Squeeze your knee all the way.
- Lower the drill into the tunnel and continue excavating until a hard limestone formation begins.
- Set the casing as far as it will go into the limestone formation. Then drill the well without lowering the string.
- Use a water pump to flush out loose soil from the barrel to avoid contaminating the aquifer.
- Continue working until the tool has gone through the water layer and rests against the hard, lower limestone shell.
- Remove the auger from the shaft.
- Secure the barrel against vertical movement.
- Flush the development with water from the surface. After removing the turbid liquid, the well will be ready for production.
- Invite specialists to measure the well, all parameters will be entered in the well passport.
Subtleties of arrangement of an artesian well
The finished mine must be equipped with devices that facilitate its operation. We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the device of the artesian well in the upper part. A pump for pumping out water, a head, a tank, sensors for monitoring the pressure in the system, measuring the liquid level, mount frost protection, etc. are installed next to the mine.
Consider what you need to learn when buying equipment:
- Pump … When choosing it, pay attention to its power and diameter. It is not recommended to save money, the performance of the water supply system depends on it. The best are the samples in a high-strength case, with sensors, automation, filters. In an ordinary well, the pump is located above the bottom at a height of 1-1.5 m, but in an artesian well it can be placed higher. Often it is lowered 10 m below the surface of the water, but not below the casing. It is imperative that the pump be protected from idle operation.
- Head … It is attached to the top of the casing to prevent debris from entering the well from the surface. It consists of a cover, a retainer, a carabiner and a seal. A cable is also attached to it to fix the pump. Self-made products are welded to the casing. Industrial designs are fixed on bolts.
- Hydroaccumulator … It is necessary to create an autonomous water supply system. The device protects the pump from frequent switching on and water hammer. The product is a container with pressure sensors and automation. The pump pumps liquid into the tank, and then it flows to the taps by gravity. The volume of the tank depends on the household needs.
- Caisson … It is installed to protect the well from freezing over the casing. This is a rectangular or round structure, which is dug into the ground to a depth of 2 m. It is insulated from the outside or from the inside, which allows the well to be operated all year round. Well service equipment can be placed inside the caisson.
How to make an artesian well - watch the video:
An artesian well provides people with the opportunity to use clean underground water. The presence of a large number of such sources from individuals has shown that the difficulties associated with obtaining a permit for drilling and arrangement of the source are surmountable. The main thing is to approach the matter responsibly, not to deviate from the drilling technology and not to violate the laws on the use of natural resources.