Independent construction of cesspools, their types and choice of location. Preparatory stage of work, process technology and further maintenance of the structure. A cesspool is an autonomous sewage system. If for the townspeople the issue of disposal of sewage is decided by public utilities, then lovers of suburban life have to think about it on their own. Today our article will tell you how to make a cesspool with your own hands.
Varieties of cesspools
Cesspools can be permanent or temporary.
If the owners are at the dacha a couple of days a week, they can fully ensure the disposal of dirty drains. temporary settling tankmade from scrap materials - old boards or tires. The plank structure will last no more than 10 years, the sump made of tires is more durable - 25 years.
Old barrels or other containers buried in the ground can also serve as temporary sedimentation tanks. Such "tanks", which serve to collect and filter wastewater, can be installed only if the amount of wastewater is less than 1 m3/day. The device of temporary sedimentation tanks is not approved and even sometimes prohibited by the sanitary services. Permanent cesspools structurally divided into sealed tanks and absorbing devices. Septic tanks also perform the functions of collecting and treating contaminated wastewater. They are more complex technically.
Salient feature absorbing sewage accumulators - no bottom. Thanks to this design, the liquid fraction of the effluent is filtered through a layer of gravel, sand and seeps into the ground. The absorbing storage option is considered economical. Due to the infiltration of water freed from waste into the ground, the services of sewers are much less often required. The absorbing type of cesspools is chosen when there are no baths, washing machines in a country house and therefore there is no need to drain a large amount of drains. Cleaning them in such tanks is not particularly effective. And this means that absorbing storage tanks will still pollute the natural environment with effluents.
Sealed storage tanks for sewage
are closed tanks made of impermeable materials. Such a cesspool device provides for regular pumping out after filling it with waste, but ensures the absence of unpleasant odors. Sealed drain pits can be made of concrete and brick. Such sedimentation tanks are durable, sewage from them does not seep into the ground, and earth does not fall from above. But the easiest way is to install a plastic container purchased from a store as a sealed drive. It is not required to seal it, but it is advisable to fill the bottom of the pit with a screed before installing the tank.
Works more efficiently concrete septic tank … If it is two-section, the hole is dug larger than usual. Then they divide it in two so that the first part is 2 times larger in size than the second. The compartments are connected by an overflow. During the collection process, wastewater flows and accumulates in a large container, where the largest part of the wastewater sludge remains. The liquid entering the second part of the structure contains almost no precipitation. If the second section is made in the form of a drainage well, the drains seeping into the ground have practically no solid fractions.
More complicated septic tank of three sections … But its manufacture requires expensive equipment: the second compartment must be equipped with a timer and a compressor, and the third with a drain pump.
How to make a cesspool?
After the completion of the preparatory stage of work, you can proceed to the main process - making a cesspool with your own hands. We will consider its device using the example of a structure for permanent use.
Choosing the location and size of the cesspool
The correct choice of a place for the construction of a cesspool on a land plot is regulated by a regulatory document - SNiP. It provides for a number of rules:
- The distance from the cesspool to residential buildings should be at least 12 m.
- The fence of neighbors on the site should be located at least 1 m from the sewer sump.
- If a cesspool is planned for a device without a bottom, then the distance from it to a well with drinking water should be at least 30 m. If there is sandy soil on the site, it must be increased to 80 m.
When determining the location of the cesspool, it is necessary to take into account the possibility of free access for a sewer service vehicle. This distance should not exceed 4 m from the pit. Otherwise, the length of the sleeves for pumping out the drains may not be enough.
Calculations to determine the volume of the sewage pit must be performed taking into account the following data:
- Number of residents permanently residing in the house … On average, each of them consumes 150-180 liters of water per day for different needs.
- Type of soil on the site … This is important if a filter pit is planned. The worse the soil absorbs water, the wider and deeper it should be.
- Soil water level … If it is high, the filter pit for the site will not work, as it will constantly be filled with ground water. In this case, it is recommended to build a sealed structure, although the pumping of wastewater will have to be performed more often.
Before purchasing materials and preparing the necessary tool, you need to pay attention to the important points of the process:
- The bottom of the pit is recommended to be concreted. This will make it easier to clean the structure.
- Sump walls can also be made of concrete, but brickwork is the best option. It should be done with half-brick holes staggered. This will allow the liquid fraction of the effluent to seep into the ground.
- Above the tank, it is necessary to make a ceiling and equip it with a hatch for pumping out the drains.
- In order for the liquid in the pit not to freeze in winter, the bottom should be located 40 cm below the freezing point of the soil.
Now let's calculate the need for material for the construction of a sewage system:
- Concrete … It is necessary for casting the floor and leveling the bottom of the sump. You can prepare it if you take 6 parts of fine gravel, 1 part of Portland cement, 4 parts of sand and water, the amount of which can be determined during mixing.
- Sand and cement for masonry … Their number depends on its volume and is determined according to the accepted Consumption Rates.
- Brick … Its consumption is easy to determine. The height of the future pit wall must be divided by the height of the clay brick and subtract 6 mm per seam. The resulting value will determine the number of rows of masonry. Then it is necessary to determine, depending on the size of the pit, the number of bricks in one row. The desired result is determined by multiplying the previously obtained numbers.
- Armature … For concreting, metal rods with a diameter of 8-12 mm or a wire with a diameter of 8 mm are suitable. Reinforcement step - 400 mm. If these materials are not available, bed nets or unnecessary pipes can be used.
The set of tools for work should include:
- Cord, building level and tape measure;
- Shovels, buckets, concrete mixer or a suitable container for hand mixing;
- Pegs with rope for marking and fencing the pit;
- Trowel, rammer, pickaxe and ladder.
Before starting work, you should mark the future structure. To do this, you can use pegs, a tape measure and a cord. If the pit is rectangular, you need to pay attention to its diagonals. They must be the same length.
Starting the preparation of the pit, you should correctly calculate your strength. After all, you have to dig up about 15 m by hand.3 soil. It's pretty tedious. It may be right to ask friends or family for help, as it is important that the process does not drag out. Especially if rainy weather is foreseen. For safety reasons, a fence must be made around the pit.
The vegetation layer of the soil can be spread over the site. Then this land will be useful for arranging beds. About 1.5m3 the soil should be left to backfill the sinuses and the hatch. This will prevent the sewage from freezing in winter. The rest of the soil will have to be removed from the site.
When the pit is ready, its bottom should be leveled and concreted. All other actions must be performed after the end of the concrete hardening.
Attention! it is advisable to plan the device of a cesspool even before erecting the foundation of a residential building. Digging a trench for him with an excavator, you can agree to dig a pit right away. This can significantly save your home budget, and most importantly, your efforts and time.
Instruction for the construction of a cesspool
The walls of the waste storage tank can be laid out of bricks. They can be round or rectangular. In the second case, ligation of the corners is required. In general, the process is no different from ordinary wall masonry for a home.
Another option is to make the walls of the cesspool from concrete rings. Their diameter is 1.5-2 m. This method is the simplest, but it will require ordering the services of lifting equipment. For a concrete cesspool, you will need 3 rings. Typically, the scope of delivery also includes a hatch cover.
In the process of erecting the walls of the cesspool, it is necessary to lay the sewer pipes, orienting them towards the house. To ensure the natural drainage of liquids, the products should be installed at an inclination to the receiver within 2%. After installation, they must be wrapped in heat-insulating material. This will protect the liquid entering the pit from freezing in winter and ensure the normal operation of the sewage system.
The slab for the pit can be made from concrete yourself. It must be strong and can support the weight of at least five people. To fill it, you need to dig a hole, and then prepare a form in the form of a formwork. It is important to take into account that the slab should protrude beyond the boundaries of the walls of the structure by at least 20-30 cm. Its thickness should be 120-150 mm. Before the concrete is poured into the mold, the reinforcement must be laid and the mounting hooks must be attached to it. They are needed to move the slab with a truck crane.
In addition, space must be left in the stove for a hatch. It is designed to pump out waste water and remove gases from the drain pit. It is advisable to carry out concreting of the slab and the bottom of the tank at the same time. This will help save time allotted for all the work.
Before laying the finished slab, the walls of the pit must be freed from the soil at the edges by 30 cm. This is necessary so that the product, after installation, rests simultaneously on the walls of the pit and the surface of the soil. After installation, the slab should be covered with earth, leaving only the hatch free.
When the work is completed, the trench with insulated pipes must be covered with soil and tamped down. The free end of the line should be connected to the sewer riser of the house and the system should be tested with water.
Over time, the cesspool can become silted. In this case, the penetration of the liquid fraction of the effluent into the drainage layer of the soil stops, and the structure will begin to fill up very quickly. For pits of this type, this process is inevitable due to the fact that sediment is filtered out of the drains and closes the pores of the soil. In such cases, the drainage layer must be cleaned of sludge. In this case, biological and chemical preparations specifically designed to restore drainage can help. How to make a cesspool - watch the video:
There are a lot of ways how to make a cesspool. You don't even have to be a builder to do this. Of the possible options, you need to choose the most optimal one that will meet the needs of the owner. And knowledge of technology will help to do the job efficiently.