Types of ladders for a well, their advantages, disadvantages and recommendations for choosing. Options for making a rope ladder. The sequence of work to create a stepladder. A ladder for a well is a device for lowering a person into a mine in order to perform maintenance or repair of a structure. It is used infrequently, but it cannot be done without it. Useful information on how to make a ladder for a well with your own hands can be found in this article.
Varieties of ladders for wells
During the operation of the krynitsa, it periodically becomes necessary to descend to its bottom. At first glance, it seems that such a procedure is rare: once a year it is necessary to clean the bottom filter, once every 2 years - to remove dirt from the walls of the mine. However, there are actually plenty of reasons for descent: foreign objects entering the water, breaking the chain, restoring the tightness of the wall, cleaning and deepening. Therefore, the ladder may be needed very quickly after the completion of the construction of the well.
Depending on the problem, various types of devices are used for this purpose: rope, attachment, ladders, staples. All of them must comply with GOST for well ladders.
The advantages and disadvantages of different types of products are presented in the table:
|Rope||Length adjustment, light weight and dimensions, long length, low cost||Inconvenience when moving||Wells of all types and sizes|
|Wooden||Convenient to climb, easy to install||Size limitation, short service life||Shallow mines|
|Metal attachment||Convenient to climb, great strength||Large weight, size limitation||Shallow springs|
|Stationary metal||Easy to climb, great strength, only installs once||Expensive due to use in only one place||Shafts of any depth, often clean the well if necessary|
|Staple||Convenient to climb||Possible breakdown of the wall tightness, the appearance of rust and water contamination||In extreme cases, when there are no other descent options|
|Ladder||A platform on the device helps with repair work||Size limitation||In very shallow wide mines|
Let's take a closer look at each option:
- Rope-ladder … Consists of two ropes, between which metal or wooden beams are fixed. The flexible material allows the product to be rolled up after use, making it easy to store and transport. The fixture can be easily made from inexpensive materials found in all stores.
- Wooden ladder … Convenient in operation - thanks to the tilt, it is easy to move along it. Consists of bowstrings and steps. For reliability, the elements are made thick enough, so the structure is heavy. It is impractical to use long devices for lowering into deep wells, they are inconvenient to transport and difficult to lower into the mine. To prevent the product from rotting ahead of time, it is covered with antiseptics.
- Metal stairs … They are divided into mobile and stationary. The first ones have hooks in the upper part, which are attached to the head of the barrel. However, such a structure is heavier than wood, so it is not made long. A stationary ladder has the same structure as a wooden one. The bowstring and steps are made of rectangular or circular pipes. Rectangular steps are considered more durable and easier to lift. The ladder should protrude at least 100 mm above the shaft for ease of use. The structure is fastened with special hooks to the upper part of the curtain. The lower part is bent and fixed with cement mortar. After installing the ladder in the well, it is painted with a special polymer coating to protect it from corrosion.
- Folding devices … Most often, there are aluminum structures, they are lighter and stronger than wooden ones. Their service life reaches 15 years. For use in wells, devices with a length of 7-10 m are used. Usually, factory-made products are used. Folding models also include wooden and metal ladders. They consist of two racks: steps are attached to one, the second serves as an emphasis. A step-ladder is made according to the size of the trunk opening. It is a versatile product that can be used during construction work outside the well. The presence of a platform in the upper part helps when repairing walls.
- Staples … They are used in cases where other options cannot be applied, because have a number of disadvantages. Their installation is carried out after the completion of the arrangement of the well. Staples can be made by yourself or purchased ready-made in hardware stores. To prevent corrosion, metal products are coated with anti-corrosion paint.
Making a rope ladder
A rope ladder is made in two ways, which differ in the technology of attaching the crossbars to the base. In one case, the constrictor assembly is used, in the other, the fastening is carried out through a hole in the strips. The product must be very reliable, therefore great attention is paid to the selection of blanks. Let us consider in detail all the nuances of making such devices.
Choice of materials
All rope ladder elements for the well can be purchased at any hardware store. To work, you will need ropes made of polyester, cotton fiber, linen, hemp or nylon. If possible, choose synthetic products, they are water-resistant, highly durable and have a long service life.
Before purchasing, make sure that the blanks meet the following requirements:
- All elements ensure safe and convenient operation of the structure. The ladder must be able to support a minimum weight of 360 kg - two very heavy workers in protective gear with tools or a load.
- The weight of the ladder for the well does not exceed 20 kg. The increase in weight affects its dimensions and ease of use.
- The steps are made of light alloys of metals, wood or plastic. When choosing materials for lintels, take into account their features: metal steps are very strong, but if the corners are poorly processed, the ropes will quickly fray; wooden blocks are lighter than metal ones, but less reliable.
- The dimensions of the steps depend on their shape. Round bars should be at least 2.6 cm in diameter and at least 25 cm in length. It is convenient to make jumpers from shovel cuttings. Rectangular ones are made from 4x4 cm strips.
- On rectangular beams, all corners should be cut off so as not to get hurt.
- The steps are fixed in 36 cm steps, which is the normal distance for an adult.
- The maximum length of the product is 15 m.
Linking Stair Elements with a Constrictor Node
In a rope ladder of this type, the cuttings are fixed to the base with a special knot. For work, you will need a rope with a diameter of 8-12 mm and wooden strips with a diameter of 3 cm and a length of 30-40 cm. The length of the cable should be equal to the depth of the source with a margin of knots.
Perform the operations in the following sequence:
- Calculate the number of cuttings by dividing the depth of the shaft by the distance between them. Usually it is equal to a person's step - 36 cm.
- Prepare the required number of sticks.
- On each handle with a pencil, parallel to the ends, at a distance of 1 cm from the edges, draw the lines for the location of the grooves. Their dimensions are: width - 1.5 cm, depth - 0.3 cm.
- Use a hacksaw to cut along the lines, and then remove the wood between them with a sharp knife.
- Remove any chips and sharp corners from the handle with sandpaper.
- Process the ends of the ropes by burning the ends with fire.
- Cut the rope into two equal pieces equal to the depth of the source.
- On each piece, make one loop and place the stalk in them. Tighten them so that the rope is in the grooves.
- Fix all cuttings in a similar way, controlling the step between them.
- Make 6 cm loops around the edges of the ropes. They are designed to fix the ladder to the shaft head.
- To prevent the steps from touching the walls, attach special stops to the stairs, providing gaps of 11-22 cm between the product and the wall.
Attaching cuttings to the base through the holes in the planks
This option for making a ladder for a well involves making holes in the strips for attachment to the base. For the manufacture of the product, you will need rectangular bars with dimensions of 4x4 cm and a length of 30-40 cm.
The work is performed in the following sequence:
- On both sides of the cutting, at a distance of 3-4 cm from the ends, drill 2 holes with a diameter of 2-3 mm larger than the diameter of the rope.
- On the cables, make the "figure eight" knots, placing them at the same distance from the edges.
- Pass the rope through the holes and slide it all the way into the loop.
- Make a new loop to tie the bar.
- Secure the rest of the cuttings in the same way. Make the distance between the planks the same - 36 cm.
How to make a ladder for a well
Making a step ladder for a well is not easy, but a homemade product will save money.
For work, you will need the following materials:
- Boards with dimensions 600x15x5 cm (1 piece) and 300x15x5 cm (1 piece);
- Iron corners (2 pcs.);
- Iron plates (2 pcs.);
- Screws, nails, 2 bolts with nuts and self-tapping screws for fastening the elements of the product.
Perform the work in the following sequence:
- Cut the long board lengthwise into 2 equal pieces with a circular saw.
- Cut out pieces of length 3 m (2 pcs.) And 2, 77 m (2 pcs.) From the blanks, from which we will make the uprights of the stepladders. If necessary, trim the cutting points with a plane.
- Cut the short plank into 8 pieces with lengths of 46, 49, 52, 54, 60, 63 and 66 cm. They will all go down the steps.
- Cut 2 more pieces from the remaining material to make spacers for a rack without steps.
- In long boards, on a wide part, mark the location of the grooves for installing steps, the dimensions of which are 3, 5x2, 5 cm. The distance between the middle of the first groove to the edge of the board should be 20 cm. Place the remaining grooves in 33 cm increments.
- Mark the same grooves for the stops on short boards at a distance of 83 and 2.5 cm from the top of the ladder.
- Make indentations in the posts along the marks with a hammer and chisel. Try to make the walls of the grooves even.
- On boards under steps 45 and 66 cm long and on spacers, draw lines at a distance of 6 cm from the ends of the workpieces, parallel to the edges.
- Make shallow cuts along the marks with a hacksaw.
- Use a chisel and hammer to remove the wood to the depth of the cut.
- Smooth the surface of the modified area with a knife and sandpaper.
- Install the modified boards and stops in the grooves on the posts and temporarily fasten with nails.
- Make seating on all steps in the same way as on the first two.
- Install the boards to their regular places in the grooves on the racks. If the steps are tight, tap them with a mallet.
- After checking the quality of the structure, mark the ends of the steps with marks of their location relative to the racks.
- Remove the steps and stops from the grooves.
- Paint the boards with acrylic paint, but leave the markings behind.
- Install the steps and stops in place in the grooves according to the markings.
- From the scraps of boards, make pins 7 cm long and 8 mm in diameter. Round off one end so that it fits well into the holes.
- Drill a hole 7 mm in diameter and 7 cm in length in the ends of the boards and uprights.
- Lubricate the holes with PVA glue and drive the pins into them.
- Cut off the protruding parts of the fasteners with a hacksaw.
- In the upper part of the ladder to the racks with steps, fasten the corners with self-tapping screws. Attach metal plates to racks without steps.
- Connect the parts with bolts and nuts. This design allows the ladder to fold.
After installing the product in the well and unfolding it on the top step and stop, you can install a plywood platform for tools and materials.
How to make a ladder for a well - watch the video:
The ladder for descending into the well is a simple product, and it is not difficult to make it yourself. However, high safety requirements are imposed on it. Therefore, in order not to get injured when working in the barn, make the device taking into account all the listed recommendations.